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WuWa! - WunderWaffen: Nazi The Atomico Project 1.La official history. In its caida wagneriana, the third Reich maintains I animate combative of million German with a promise: the existence of WuWa, the WunderWaffen, "arma maravillosa" definitive that it will always change for the unfavorable course of the war. Simultaneamente from 1942 is developed in the United States an industrial and cientifico effort without precedents: the call "proyecto Manhattan", destined to create the atomica pump. The United States knows that Germany has the tecnicos, the cientificos and the industrial power necessary to approach the manufacture of the atomica pump, but apparently does not know the degree of atomico development of the Nazi regime. The war passes, and with exception of the attacks mounted by the rockets V-1 and V-2, and of the jet planes Me-262, there is sign of the announced German definitive no arms. At the beginning of 1945 the collapse of I exercise Nazi is imminent, their communications and provisions have been destroyed and in May the aim arrives after the suicide from Adolph Hitler. A special commando of the American intelligence service, which he knows himself like "alsos", one is in charge to investigate and to compile any information referring to the program of the hipotetica Nazi atomica pump. Finally the commando finds, hidden in a grotto excavated under a church of Haigerloch, the experimental reactor B-VIII, a coarse heavy water container, with a pair of unsuitable reactors submerged in his interior. Samuel Gouldsmit, head of the operation "alsos", he is butcher in his conclusions: the project of the atomica pump of Hitler was a created myth to hopelessly put under the will of million German a resitencia in a suicidal war. The engaged WuWa did not exist jamas. 2.Farm Hall: the cientificos German speak. One of the primary targets of the Alsos operation was to capture those cientificos Germans who could have played a considerable role in the development of the hipotetico Nazi atomico program. Without too much effort, Heisenberg, creator of the uncertainty principle and Nobel prize are found de Fisica, and Otto Hahn, discoverer in 1938 of the nuclear, key fission for the future development of the atomica pump. Also Kurt Diebner and Walter Gerlach are stopped, main politicos people in charge of "uraniorum", the program "oficial" of energia nuclear German, with seat in the call "Virus House" of Berlin. Little despues of the war, the handful of captured cientificos is committed in a house of field equipped with microphonos, which it knows itself as "Farm Hall".Alli the reactions and conversations of the wise people are observed kindly, with object to know in depth the state the nuclear investigations during the third Reich. Some data are obtained: in 1942, they are reunen in Berlin Heisenberg and Albert Speer, then flaming minister of armament of the Reich, in substitution of recently deceased Dr Todt. Heisenberg communicates to him to Speer that is not possible tecnicamente a atomica pump in an inferior term to three or four years, and that single is interesting and I practice a effort oriented to the development of a nuclear reactor that allows the propulsion of submarines. Consequently Albert Speer grants to the group of Heisenberg the little amount of two million marks, bases twenty times superior to ridiculo estimated initial solicitd by the own Heisenberg. Despues of three years, the results of this nuclear investigation are practicamente null. There is no reactor, it does not have bomba.Tan single a cyclotron that quickly are seized by the Russians in its advance towards Berlin, and a nonoperative reactor in the small town of Haigerloch. When the 6 of August of 1945 them are communicated the explosion of the atomica pump from Hiroshima to retained in Farm the Hall, the incredulity and surprise of the Germans are absolute. Everything was reflected finally in a book written by the own Samuel Gouldsmit: "Myths around the german atomic Bomb", in that one concludes that the cientifica and tecnologica investigation was nonviable in the Nazi tiranica Germany, and that this single advance is possible in paises that they adjust to the schemes of the Anglo-American liberal democracy. Full stop. trimmed 3.Los powers of Speer. In order to include/understand the complexity and mystery of the existence of a possible Nazi atomico program, it is necessary to firstly understand the mechanisms of power that are establecian in the third Reich: Adolf Hitler was the supreme and unquestionable head of Germany, and was extremely dificil to determine that podia to be, algun day, its successor in the position. In Nazi Germany not habia second side, not habia true paladín. From before the ascent of Hitler to the power there were violent internal fights in the socialist national party, with object to monopolize the nonsingle control of the mechanisms for the own benefit of each contender, but for a possible future inheritance of the total power in the head of the Reich. The inefficiency of the Nazi investigation has been criticized much military, when causing that many projects with an apparently common objective were developed in parallel and without no mutual collaboration. The immense variety of types of arms, airplanes, tanks and even ejercitos and uniforms, produced a fertil competition between the different parts from the Nazi machinery military, giving rise to an incredible tecnologico advance in all you order and activities prohibitively, mainly if we compared them with the poor women and conservatives innovations made by the allies, always worried in copying by means of the massive use of espionage organizations the inventions made in Nazi Germany, although in the end this tecnica variety were finally of the weight but one factors in the final defeat of the Reich, causing an expensive waste of the resources available. Albert Speer not book of the mecanica of operation of the regime, and in its work as armament minister their attributions were limited strongly to guarantee to the German industry military the raw materials, the energy and the necessary manual labor so that the motor followed in march. Speer remained from 1943 totally other people's one to the true nature del program of rockets, that depended from that year of the structure of the SS of Himler, with that Speer mantenia mutual and deep enemistad personal. Jamas was interchange some of information between both parts, with exception of the essential requirements for the delivery of raw materials. In its Speer memories it considered that the program of V-2 rockets was a total stupidity, a whim but of complex fantasia geopolitica of Hitler, although the own Speer habia supported while they were the V-2 under the control of I exercise. Like result of the skepticism of Speer, Hitler from 1943 did not comment to him to this one anything on the research program on rockets, since führer conocia in advance the answer of Speer. Equal ocurrio with the program of secret airplanes to reaction, employees entirely of the Luftwaffe de Goering, with that Speer mantenia as well a tense relation. Speer got to be present at the takeoff of a V-2, but despues of the Speer war even remained absolutely ignorante with respect to the projects of intercontinental bombers to reaction, like the Horten XVIII or the Plow and 555, asi as it did not know the mere existence of the airplanes vertical take-off fighter like the Focke-Wulf Triebflugel or the Natter. Even the V-1, constructed by the Luftwaffe de Goering, and the V-2, employees of I exercise and after the SS, they grew and they were developed of separated form and in competition. Who thinks about a stratified structure of control and unitary in the direction of armaments in the style of which ocurria then in the United States, England or Russia, one structure that was under the total control of Albert Speer, is mistaken: single Hitler was in knowledge of the totality of the actions and projects that were made in their Reich, information valiosisima that führer it did not doubt in using and administering to foment one lasts competition between the different groups and to reinforce its personal power. For that reason the death of Hitler meant the instantaneous disappearance of the politica structure of nazism, although the social support to said ideologia was extremely strong between the German population, still many months despues of the military defeat. By I complete the attack of the 20 of Julio of 1944 against Hitler supposed another hard misfortune the power of Speer: although never its direct participation in the plot was demonstrated, its name appeared the future in government of the coup participants. Single the personal intervention of Hitler avoided its imprisonment and judgment by high treason. 4.Heisenberg, "judio blanco" So and as it can be ***reflxed mng in the book of Samuel Goudsmit, the memories of Heisenberg and numerous declarations done after the war, Heisenberg never work in the project of a German atomic pump. Such circumstance was an impossible one in Nazi Germany. The prestige of the Nobel prize was great in Germany, but all sabian that the famous cientifico was also the old friend and companion of Einstein, Niels Bohr, or Lise Mietner, all of them embarked in the ambitious American Manhattan project. The Nazi regime distrusted of Heisenberg, to that the Nazi leaders called "el judio blanco", as also they distrusted of the teoricos fisicos in general, to consider that the atomica fisica habia turned a "ciencia subject especulativa", "ciencia judia", inutil to the development I practice of military solutions of immediate use. The third Reich was essentially a pragmatico regime, based on ingenieria and tecnologia, and the totality of their criticos developments was into the hands of engineers, not of cientificos. The discoverer of the nuclear fission in 1938, Otto Hahn, also was discarded to head the program of a nuclear weapon for Germany. Hahn was a radical pacifist, who showed a strong opposition the development of any type of arms, after to have collaborated during World War I in the production of quimicas arms and gases, circumstance that him I leave deeply noticeable for the rest of its life. As much I exercise as the SS considered that he was dangerous to force Hahn to construct the atomica pump, since they temian that this it intimamente falsified or it boycotted the development of the military nuclear program. 5.Trabajo in parallel: three Nazi atomicos projects. At least three work groups on the atomico project were being developed simultaneamente in Nazi Germany: the official, financed by own minister Albert Speer, and that under the direction of Walter Gerlach and Kurt Diebner incluia also of Werner Heisenberg and Otto Hahn. Its work was oriented to pure the teorica fisica, connectionless direct with the military effort German, safe for the long term creation of a reactor for submarine motors. As they reflect newspapers of Speer, a second group constituia the minister of Telecommunications, Engineer Dr Wilhem Ohnesorge, in collaboration with the Werchmacht and later with the SS, having the charge of the work of the famous fisico Baron Von Ardenne, who desarrollaria the separation of enriched uranium 235 by means of a tecnica of centrifugalization of hexafluoruro of uranium in its subterraneos laboratories of Berlin. This firmaria group a contract with the Auer company, in where another called engineer Nikolaus Riehl inventories a refined system of fast of I oxidize of uranium. A third group, commanded by effective general Kammler and controlled by the SS, collaborated with luftwaffe in the creation of an independent nuclear program, in which operative results in the middle of 1943 obtendrian. This group worked with an extreme degree of excessive secrecy, and from 1943 fusionaria with the nuclear project of the Reichpost de Ohnesorge. That same year the SS harian with emporio industrialist hungaro "Arden-Weiss", where all the Nazi atomicas pumps are montarian. 6, General Kammler: the SS remain with the Wunderwaffe projects To raiz of the attack of the 19 of Julio of 1944 against Adolf Hitler, the totality of the considered projects as high secret are absorbed by the SS, in a project finally unified under the command of general Kammler. Serious general east the one that arrebataria to I exercise nonsingle the nuclear project WuWa, but also the control of the program of V-2 rockets and the futures A-9 and A-10 of intercontinental missiles. Little it is known of General - Engineer Hans Kammler, unless vivia in the same building that Baron Manfred Von Ardenne, and that frequently visited the subterraneos laboratories of Von Ardenne located in the anti-aerial sotanos of that same building. Kammler sustituiria to Speer in many areas of the organization of Todt work, and desarrollaria a parallel administrative system to the state, totally computerizado. Construiria to backs of I exercise and the armament ministry the fabulous subterraneas facilities of Turingia, in where also they were located the thickness of the uranium mines of Germany and Czechoslovakia. After the war, General Dr. Hans Kammler disappeared without leaving sign. Although segun information of the company declassified recently, exist sufficient indications of their survival after the war and its participation, with another identity, in the Russian nuclear program as of 1945. 7. Shining Baron Von Ardenne. He is inutil to look for in a western encyclopedia some information on Baron Von Ardenne. Nevertheless, in extinct Eastern Germany it was a species of Edison to the German. Publicos hundreds of streets, schools and buildings even take today their name. Von Ardenne, inventive prolifico German, adquiriria world-wide fame before the war thanks to its discoveries in the land of the televising emission, developing the system of transmission of the Olympic Games of Berlin of 1936. During the war it inventories the electron microscope and the nocturnal viewfinders of infrared, asi like the fusible infrared for explosives that finally were used to implosionar pumps like the one of plutonium sent in Nakasaki. Von Ardenne was key for the development of the system of separation of the isotopos U238 and U235 by means of super centrifugadoras.Tras the serious war given to the Russians by general Kammler, developing the sovietico nuclear program within Russian-German-Eastern company WISMUT, located in Turingia. But late it worked in the Institute for the industrial separation of isotopos (SUCHUMI) in the Sovietica union. From 1955 he was founding and director of the institute of Eastern Germanic investigation of Dresde of fight against cancer, where it developed a system of treatment of tumors by atomica radiation. Von Ardenne murio the 26 of May of 1997. Its company exists and is even key for economia of old Eastern Germany. 8. Enriched uranium U-235: who arrived before? The uranium that can be in the nature this compound in a 99% of uranium 238, nonfissionable and therefore nonapt to make pumps atomicas, and a 1% of uranium 235, facilmente fissionable. An exception is the mines of Oklo, in pais Central African of Gabon, in where in 1972 it was natural uranium with a 70% of isotopo U235 and mineral veins that generated maintained reactions espontaneas, asi like significant amounts of plutonium 239 in natural state. The process of separation of the isotopos of uranium is very complex, since it cannot become by via quimica, single mecanicamente. The North Americans of the Manhattan project used a system of electromagnetico confinement of separation of isotopos, call calutrón, that after two years of arduous works and a cost near the trillion of dolares, single habia produced two grams of U235 at the end of 1944. Later, in January of 1945 the Americans initiated another procedure of separation based on an expensive filtrate system by means of dust membranes of nickel compressed of the gas hexafluoruro of Uranium, that, even being but effective, as soon as he allowed to have available two kilograms of U235 in Julio of 1945. The third system based on a system I supercentrifuge, invented by the German Von Ardenne for the massive production of U235 was a exito, but this single system was known by the Americans from 1958 and used by the Russians from 1946, despues of the war. The system consists of a chain of cascade tubes of about 10 to 15 centimetros of diametro that are rotated to one 30,000 revolutions per second. Hexafluoruro of uranium with u235, but light that the one that contains u238, remains in the center of the cylinder, of where it is absorbed and injected in a new cylinder I centrifuge, and asi successively until obtaining a purity of u235 of 95%. Another Austrian engineer called Gernot Zippe which I collaborate with Von Ardenne and that was also captured by the Russians, consiguio to emigrate to the United States in 1958, attributing the invention of the system I centrifuge and patenting it in the West in 1960, in where it is known like Metodo Zippe of Uranium enrichment. From 1960 to 1985 the system I centrifuge was also used in the United States. He is ten times but effective and of much smaller electrico consumption than the American filtrate system. Today the Russians even continue using the system I centrifuge, and in fact they are the greater producers of the world of U235. The system of enrichment by means of cascade of supercentrifugal machines is used ademas in Holland, Korea of the North, China, Iran, Iraq and Israel. Like result of the previous thing, and before the impossibility of the American project to make a uranium pump 235, they focused all its efforts in the manufacture of a pump of plutonium 239, fissionable artificial element also apt for the manufacture of pumps. In 1942 the Italian fisico of the Manhattan project, Enrico Fermi, consiguio to put into maintained operation a nuclear reactor that permitia the manufacture of Pu239 plutonium, by means of the intensive radiation of uranium 238. In spite of everything, the United States single disponian of 6 kilograms of plutonium in the middle of Julio of 1945. 9. A test before the offensive of Kursk. In the visperas of the battle of Kursk, a teletype by diplomatica valise was sent to all the German embassies in Europe. In this official notice one inquired into which habia made with exito the test of a new pump, of little so large and formidable power. One was a mixed pump of conventional explosive and a small amount of nuclear fuel that habria done the times of sudden of high power on the conventional explosive charge. But the Germans already tenian a test of the effectiveness of their metodos in the handling of nuclear fuel. And what is but important: in 1943 the Germans already did guessed right estimations of the power of a atomica uranium pump. Of 1943 they are the detailed Nazi plans of nuclear attack against New York devised by the OKL, the office of the Luftwaffe de Hermann Goering, in where the values in kilocalorias by kilometro were specified exactly I cube of the effect of a nuclear blast in Manhattan, and which they coincidian completely with the 15 kilotons of the pump that serious used the 6 of August of 1945 on Hiroshima. 10, Hitler tranquilizes to Mussolini. In April of 1944 reunion in the castle of Klessheim de Salzburgo took place important, that they attended Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, marshal Rodolfo Graziani, Von Ribbentrop, Keitel, Dollman and the ambassador of Germany in Italy, Rhan. With object to tranquilize to its ally, Hitler him transmitio an extraordinary information, corroborated by several witnesses in declarations done after the war. Hitler said: "..tenemos airplane to reaction, we have noninterceptables submarines, artilleria and colossal cars, systems of vision nocturnal, rockets of exceptional power and a pump whose effect astonished to the world. All this is accumulated in our subterraneos factories quickly surprising. The enemy knows it, strikes to us, destroys to us, but to its destruction we will respond with the hurricane and with no need to resort to the bacteriologica war for which we also were to point. There is no a single one of my words that the suffrage of the truth does not have. !Vereis!.." 11, Luigi Romersa. Island of Rügen, 12 of October of 1944, 11:45 A.M.. Atomico test. At the beginning of October of 1944 Italian Luigi Romersa, already famous journalist by its news article on the liberation of conducted Mussolini a year before by German special troops, recibia of the Duce an extremely important mission: to travel to Germany with object to inform to him into the advances made in the Third Reich in the field of the secret arms. The journalist was taken to visit the subterraneas facilities of Turingia, the launch emplacements of still the V-2 strangers, and what serious but important: a test of totally operative the German atomica pump. In several articulos written from 1947 in prestigious European military parades, journalist Luigi Romersa declared to be witness of a German nuclear test the 12 of October of 1944 to the 11:45 A.M. in the island of Rügen, in the baltico sea and proxima to the base of Peenemunde, where they were made most of the investigations on rockets. The magnitude of the atomica explosion was caught fotograficamente from several places of the baltica coast, and the sismica wave caused by the detonation was detected in distant Stockholm. Two months despues, the 16 of December of 1944 a excited pronunciaria Mussolini his I complete speech I publish before thousands of facists in the lirico theater of Milan, announcing to them the imminent Germanic attack against the main allied cities, a definitive attack with pumps and rockets of extraordinary power, pumps with capacity to destroy whole cities at a moment. The 20 of April of 1945 Mussolini volveria to speak of the German atomicas pumps. Llama to journalist G.G. Cabella, old friend and director of the periodic "il popolo d´Alessandria", and it dictates the one to him that serious despues considered like "testamento politico" of the Duce. Mussolini affirms with rotundidad in the interview that the Germans already tenian three finished pumps, and that its use can suppose an upset of the situation. A declassified official document at least makes reference to the test of Rügen: The 24 of January of 1946, a pilot of the antiaerial Flak German Ziesser call is interrogated by captain Helenes T. Freiberger of American intelligence. This pilot makes a detailed description of the place and moment of the nuclear test, that agrees exactly with the report of Romersa. 12, Jonastal III C: The subterranea strength of Turingia the suspicion that the Germans were obtaining results in the nuclear investigation caused, at the end of 1944, an exponential increase of the attacks of aviacion allied, with object to ruin the German belica machinery. But the secret allies desconocian where they were famous factorias, asi that came to a sistematico bombing from all the territory German, including any military objective and also civil. But the Nazi secret industry was outside the reach of the allied pumps: one was to many meters of depth in the mountainous interminable region of turingia where tuneles fed the work on hundreds of thousands of workers in charge to give form to the dangerous dreams but of Hitler. Single in the gigantic installation Jonastal S III they worked and they malvivian but of thirty thousand workers in a subterranea city of twenty-five kilometros of length. But late the Russians ocuparian those subterraneas cities, located indeed on the rich Southeastern uranium deposits del of Germany, and crearian from 1946 the Russian company WISMUT, that during the 40 following years llegaria to make but of 200,000 kilos of enriched uranium U235 destined to equip the sovietico arsenal of atomicas pumps. Later the subterraneas mines and cities serian dynamited, and today the access to the zone even continues final being prohibited by the authorities of reunified Germany. 13. A He177 prepared for the atomica war: In factorias Skoda in the Prague, Chekoslovaquia, prepared a mysterious airplane officially, the Heinkel There am 177-A5 Greif V38 prototype equipped with a system bombing to great altitude, unusual in the Luftwaffe, and also equipped with a complex external system of enlistment of pumps, protection anti-radiation, a sophisticated electronico equipment and a structure of operation very similar to which equipped the American B-29 Enola Gay, who in August of 1945 dropped the atomica pump of Hiroshima. This modified He177 has always raised to doubts with respect to the reach of the nuclear program German between the historians and the fans to the history of aviation. The range of flight of this version modified of There are 177 was superior to the 6500 kilometros, with a util load of five tons in pumps. Sufficient benefits to arrive at New York, city located to a practicamente equidistant distance, from the center of Europe, to the remote one and uninhabited Siberian region of Tunguska. In I complete flight plan of that He177 appeared a trip to the military airport of Kristiansand, in Norway. 14. The mysterious explosion of Tunguska. The 30 of June of 1908 a great meteorite crossed skies of central Siberia. Its impact was visible in many kilometros to the round one, and apparently their effects caused strangers luminous events in all skies of the world and I am also registered in the sismografos of London. Although there is one who assigns the fenomeno of the luminosity to the explosion of the peleano volcano of Sights on in Mexico, also happened in 1908. That year was specially active, with numerous volcanicas eruptions and great earthquakes like the one of Messina in Italy. Also they seem to exist serious errors of dating of all those registries, that do not consider the difference of several weeks between the western gregoriano calendar and the then used one by the Russians. Almost twenty years despues, a mysterious Russian explorer with worthy aspect of casting of Hollywood, Leonid Kulik, organizes in 1927 an expedition in search of the Siberian meteorite, whose place of impact nobody habia seen nor located until then. 1927 are also the year in which Stalin assumes the totality of the sovietico power. It is badly a year to make science: after one it lasts and it releases civil war, nobody can move freely in the sovietica union, to risk of ending up perishing in algun gulag. But Kulik finally mounted in its sleigh and crossing the impassable and dense Siberian wooded tundra (even today single it is possible to go in helicoptero), miraculously finds a remote valley devastated by the effect of a gigantic explosion. And espectaculo is the first human being in seeing that. There is no meteorite crater, but in a radius of several kilometros single there are the rest of thousands of you hoist demolished by a brutal force. Later expeditions in the Thirties and forty make some aerial fotograficos news articles of the event, and in 1946 a Russian cientifico, Alexander Kazantsev, the history of Kulik explorer writes a book counting for the first time and attributing to the cause of the fenomeno to "la atomica explosion of a ship extraterrestre" . Published documentation exists inside previous to year 1946 referring to the fenomeno of Tunguska neither nor outside Russia. Single some notes of newspapers from 1904 to 1910 reporting vision of the caida one of several lost meteorites in that remote one and depopulating region of Siberia. Until aqui the official history, that during you complete five decadas ones has traido in check to astronomos, geologos and an extraordinary one I exercise of ufologos and parapsicologos with the mission to explain the inexplicable thing. But the reality could facilmente be another one: In 1946 Stalin apogee of its power is in maximo: it has won a war, has eliminated all his enemies, like Trotsky Leon, having erased all track of his existence, falsifying even fotografias who construct sovietica history. 1945 - 1946 are also the year in which the Americans begin to send their airplanes spies now on the territory of their old and worrisome communist ally. In 1945, to Stalin it desires to him very little that the Americans discover Tunguska, an enormous sample of the vulnerability of his sovietico empire: The track of the attack with a atomica pump made by the Germans the 23 of February of 1945. 15. Siberian Hiroshima Hiroshima, 6 of August of 1945: to seven hundred meters of height (the zero call "ground point"), a talent able explodes to destroy all a city. With the luminosity of thousand suns, the deflagration devastates and volatilizes everything in a radius of kilometro and means. Its shock wave destroys in seconds any being or thing including inside I circulate of eight kilometros of diametro. Under the epicenter of the explosion, you hoist them remain miraculously of foot, when arriving to them vertically the shock wave. Just as in Tunguska, where you hoist them of the epicenter remain still still on in spite of the passed decadas ones. The explosion of Tunguska is also similar to the one of Hiroshima in the explosion level: topologia of the zone and the map of the effect shows that catastrofe is stopped by a mount with a height of hardly six hundred meters on the bottom of the valley: the hipotetico "meteorito" or "ovni" of tunguska it exploded to about 600 meters of altitude. The one of Hiroshima it exploded to 565 meters. The radius of total destruction is of kilometro and average, although still it is possible to track the effects of the shock wave to but of ten kilometros of distance. The fire subsequent to the fenomeno multiplied by thirty the destroyed area, which in the end will cause that many specialists imagine an explosion thousands of times hard but that the one of Hiroshima, similar to a pump of I hydrogenate. It is a exageración: an explosion asi sign would have volatilized you hoist them of the epicenter, would not have had left some of them. One was then an explosion of about 20 kilotons, like in Hiroshima. All the investigations made in the ultimos fifty years aim at an impossible hypothesis in 1908: A nuclear blast. But all we know that in 1908 not habia atomicas pumps, although if there were a remarkable activity of meteorites and comets in the zone, pestered during centuries by crater of impacts reconocibles, different from Tunguska in all the aspects. For that reason there is to resort to estramboticas explanations on extraterrestrial ships or comet disintegration. All the specialists discuss the origin of the explosion, but nobody puts in doubt the fact that the explosion of Tunguska really happened in 1908. He is very probable that the little trustworthy but intelligent Stalin has deceived to us once again with the date of birth of the fenomeno Tunguska, falsifying it in but of 40 years. Some published is no document, previous to 1945, that it speaks or talks about this explosion, in ningun language, including the Russian. The supposed studies of 1930 attributed to FJW Whipple, of the Royal Meteorological Society of London, make refencia to great meteorites caidos in Siberia at the beginning of century, that nothing they have to do with Tunguska. 16, Stalin and the manufacture of the myth of Tunguska. All fotografias existing of Tunguska shows espectaculo identico: the devastation without precedents of a gigantic forest mass. Said fotografias they are at least of 1927, segun the own sovieticas sources, year in which segun says to Leonid Kulik descubrio the site after making its prosaic and lucky expedition in sleigh, crossing thousands of kilometros of impenetrable forest. Fotografias aerial is, segun the sources, something but tardias, of end of the years treinta.Sin embargo offers same espectaculo: total desolation, no forest recovery in spite of to have passed but of thirty years of the event. As of 1946, the recovery of the forest of Tunguska seems almost instantaneous, like ocurrio in the following years to the bombing of Hiroshima, by effect of radiation. A miraculous slowed down answer of the nature? But we have a good near example: In 1980 the volcanica explosion of the mount St. Helen, located in the Washington state takes place, in the extreme northwest of the United States. A force millon of times greater than the one of the fenomeno of Tunguska makes disappear average mountain, and destroys and demolishes million of you hoist in a radius of tens of kilometros. But the sequence of fotografias made later they reveal the almost total and spectacular recovery of the neighboring forests to the single volcano in fifteen years. Nevertheless, almost forty years despues of the mysterious explosion of Tunguska, in 1946, the aspect of the devastated forest panorama is still identico to the one of the forests of St. Helen in 1981, single one a year despues of catastrofe American. Something similar happens in Hiroshima: but by effect of radiation, an accelerated vegetal growth in the area previously destroyed by the atomica pump takes place. Of to be certain the sovietica hypothesis of the history of Kulik, in 1927 the recovery of the forest of Tunguska must have been almost complete. Everything seems to indicate that the explosion of Tunguska could not happen in 1908: One is a sophisticated falsification of the secret services of Stalin, that hid the tracks of the mysterious deflagration after the smoke screen of the caida one of several metereoritos happened at the beginning of century in an indetermine area of Siberia and after a fantastica history of a supposed expedition of search that exactly leaves when beginning the estalinismo, and that finishes in 1942, when dying Leonid To Kulik to the sixty years of age, in the front of the east fighting against the Germans... and to the stopped being, exterminated by the typhus and disintegrated in a concentration camp German! . (It agrees to indicate aqui that the Russians never sent to the front to which knew something but that to read and to write. All the men and women of superior formation were from the first day exentos of the combat and were used in the sovieticas industries rear. Much less they were sent to the front cientificos of sixty years of age.) 17. Because to attack Tunguska? When in 1943 the operation of the new and revolutionary jet fighter Me262 was shown Adolph Hitler to him, it reacted of an apparently ilogica form: he decided to turn the new hunting a tactico bomber, before the surprise and consternacion of the military presents. Hitler veia in that hunting the possibility of showing its enemies whom still podia to attack to them and to bomb to them with total impunity, like the gigantic allies hacian using raids of bombers that whipped Germany. The same happened with the V-2 missile. Even being a tecnica wonder, militarily the V-2 was an absolute failure. It caused but dead between the troops in charge of his handling and construction that like result of its impact in enemy territory. Many, among them the own minister of armaments Albert Speer, sabian that at those moments the program of rockets was an immense superfluous cost for the Reich, but Hitler saw it of another way. The V-2 was for him "arma diplomatica", an instrument that podia to force to the allies to a truce or to sign a peace caused by the fear. Hitler never envio the V-2 against the sovieticos, since simply he did not consider that a that outside measurement of pressure against Stalin and his I exercise, dispersed and almost indifferent to the destruction and lost the human ones. The Führer was an obsessed one of the geopolitica. For him, any action podia to have indirect, barrocas and so unforseeable politicas consequences that few in their surroundings were able to detect or to guess. This same criterion pushed to him to sign the non-aggression pact with Russia in 1939, to declare the war to the Americans in 1941 for asi to press to the Japanese to an attack against the Russian rear, or to withdraw best SS of the battle of Kursk in its algido point and to send them to Italy, with Italian object to reinforce the moral of the even loyal ones to Mussolini after its overthrow of 1943. Thus she was Hitler. For Hitler the atomica pump era in essence another one "arma diplomatica" in order to change of raiz the course of the events and discovering for the first time a form to make politica that but ahead everybody would call "politica of dissuasion nuclear". To bomb a remote one and vacated region of Siberia offered several advantages, surely inexplicable for whatever it was not familiarized with psicologia of the head of the Reich. Habia does not form to damage seriously to the sovieticos with a single atomica pump, since its industry and his I exercise were in favor dispersed of the sovietica immensity. Another thing that Hitler had had several hundreds of pumps like the one of Hiroshima, that, would have been used well in the front of the east podian to have disintegrated good part of I exercise Russian. The risk that ran the Germans was minimo, in case that the pump did not explode to the being sent on Tunguska. The lost quedaria atomico device in the dense and desert Siberian forest, without possibility of being recovered and of being reused of immediate form by the sovieticos. Bombing deliberately a desertica zone of Siberia, Hitler avoided to increase hatred and the retaliation that the Russian troops, already in territory German, were showing against the population and I exercise Germanic conquered. With the explosion in Tunguska they warn to Stalin and its allies of the existence of the atomic weapon. The objective of Hitler was essentially another one: to persuade the Anglos-American that he was better to sign an agreement, or otherwise could bomb New York or Washington, aerial targets equidistant to the distant Tunguska, if we took like datum point the center from Europe. Hitler trusted that the Russians spoke immediately to the Americans of the explosion of Tunguska, and that despues they removed to conclusions when measuring the distances, and they discovered that they podian to be susceptible to a Nazi atomic attack. In the mind of Hitler, Tunguska was therefore the ideal site to drop the first operative atomica pump of history, a identica pump to the one of Hiroshima. But once again, their sophisticated geopoliticas espectativas chocarian with the elementary pragmatismo of their Anglo-American and Russian enemies, who rare time yielded or understood the complex Hitler politicas machinations. The Head of the Reich of the thousand years would even have forces to organize his completes "gran play geopolitica", perhaps but successful, the at sight one of the polemicas forts, the repression and censorship that "nazi" even provokes;, and the million admirers of the national-socialism that are in the world almost sixty years despues: the creation of the historico myth of the resistance of the Nazi regime in Berlin until the total destruction. 18, Hitler promises the final victory In his completes broadcast speech of day 23 of February of 1945, the own Adolf Hitler promises to the final victory, while she declares, in mouth of a dramatico Joseph Goebbels, who requests to God that he pardons to him to make use of a demolishing and definitive weapon. That same morning has had knowledge of the successful mission of the Heinkel Are 177 that habia taken off twelve hours before from an airport in Czechoslovakia. Optimist by the atomica test, even dares to visit his troops personally, who fight themselves in the front of the Oder. The ambitious plan tries to show the allies the power of the new weapon, asi like the even possible radius bombing of Nazi aviation, with object to force a truce in both fronts of the conflict. Hitler thought that the a practices equidistance of Tunguska to Turingia and from New York to Kristiansand (the point of Europe under control German but near the American east coast) it would force the Americans to think about the one possibility attacks German against some over-populated city of the American east coast. Simultaneamente communicates to the neutral Spanish government of the collateral and nondeliberate danger that they can undergo some Spanish border cities with France, as a result of the use of the new arms. In those days the French ports of Bordeaux, Nize, Tolon and Marseilles, proximos all of them to Spain, were being used massively by the Anglo-American fleet, and therefore they became high-priority objectives of a possible atomico bombing German. But Stalin shuts up, and it does not communicate the undergone nuclear attack in Tunguska to its Anglo-American allies. Their troops are already closely together of Berlin, and knows that even an attack generalized German against Russia tendra little effect on the sovietica belica machinery: their main cities estan already destroyed, are lost twenty million Russians at German hands and their industry this dispersed one by the immensities of Siberia. There is possibility of an no attack concentrated against the Russians for that type of arms, unless Nazi Germany has hundreds of pumps like the one of Tunguska. To the few Stalin days it verifies that massive German is no atomico attack, and orders to I exercise red the definitive assault to the capital of the Reich. 19, Hitler does not use the pump After the failure of the possible negotiations with Stalin, and before the nonexistence of an Anglo-American answer, Hitler is in the worse one of the possible situations. His I exercise bat in distant in the west, backs down bloodily in the east and its industrial system, that remains intact in a 80% in the subsoil German, suffocates by the lack of provisions. A bombing of warning like the one of Tunguska against American the extremely dificil era for the Nazis: All the Europe occupied by the allies, asi like all the American east coast, unica zone within reach of a German bombing, densely was populated and could be understood the bombing as a frontal attack against the population. An impact in the atlantico could cause unforseeable effects, quiza a tidal wave, to not to be proven the pump in the sea. Additionally a German technical error could badly be interpreted as or to be due to a natural fenomeno, like the fall of a meteorite. A demonstration in the desert of North Africa or in Greenland podria to give a mistaken image of the destructive power of the pump, as it happened in the test of Trinity de Alamogordo: the so single explosion destroyed the tower that sostenia the pump and vitrified a thin layer of the ground, giving rise to a new mineral, the trinitina. Single it had left to east Hitler the possibility of a frontal attack against New York or another great city of the American coast, to force a possible peace with the West, even though the V-2 who or sent itself on London do not conseguian to force to the English a negotiation. Hitler is uncertain: the sudden death of quiza million people as a result of a nuclear attack can cause an undesired answer by American part. Before the overwhelming allied aerial superiority, Hitler fears that the allies dare finally to a massive bombing with gases or bacteriologicas arms, but much lethal who the conventional bombings that already sufrian the Germans in all their intensity. Ademas persists fear founded of which the Americans have or of a atomica weapon similar characteristics, that have still not been used, for the same reasons that were not used the quimicos or bacteriologicos agents. The North Americans do not tendrian so many considerations to the hour of the atomico bombing of Japanese cities. Sabian, thanks to the capture of the U-234 submarine, that the Japanese disponian neither of atomicas pumps, nor of rockets, nor of capacity for a possible answer of retaliation against the United States, asi that podian to carry out the nuclear attack with total impunity. Nevertheless that fear to the assured retaliation if fria worked during the fifty later years military, in which the use of atomico armament was avoided thanks to the mutual strategy of "disuasion nuclear". If Germany had been able to finish to the production of the intercontinental missiles A-9/A-10 or the bombers to reaction of long reach Horten XVIII or Junkers E-555, or the antipodal bomber Sänger, Hitler had been able to attack with some guarantee the allies from their subterraneas bases in Turingia, while he permanecia intrenched in their alpine redoubt, to forcing the wished truce. Also the dictator had needed German who the serial production of atomicas pumps was at least ten times superior to the obtained thing until then, as soon as two operative pumps of plutonium and one of uranium, and nuclear fuel for other twenty pumps but... The 20 of March fall Budapest definitively, and with gigantic Hungary they also fall factorias Manfred-Weiss, pertaining to emporio economico of the SS and place where the German atomicas pumps were assembled. It was so the importance of this factoria that the five better divisions of the SS, but of 70,000 men, were displaced from the south of Germany and Austria, causing a fast one advances enemy in both fronts. Although single 1,000 men of the Waffen survived the terrible fight in defense of the Manfred-Weiss, Hitler, in a wrath fit, orders that the soldiers of the SS take the band-standard of the arms with the name of the Führer, and deprives of authority of their power to Heinrich Himmler. From then, sera also General Kammler the head "de facto" of Waffen SS. The 3 of April Americans and the Russians invade Turingia occupying the bases and you make German secret investigations. Hitler reune urgently with Kammler and is made him arrive new you order: Still a possibility of an aerial attack against an American city from the base of Kristiansend had left, in Norway, sending a bomber of long He177 reach to gather a nuclear engine taken alli by the U-234 submarine. To raiz of the death of Roosvelt, Hitler will return to believe in a radical change of the situation, hoping like Federico Great the miracle of a possible imminent confrontation between the western allies and his less and less trustworthy sovieticos comrades-in-arms. The confrontation wished by llegaria single Hitler after the melodramatica death of the Führer, and would extend during the 50 following years, the years of "guerra fría". Day 15 of April, after verifying that new American president Truman will continue the hostilities, and fearing a brutal Anglo-American retaliation, Hitler decides not to execute the aerial attack against New York from Kristiansend. That same day the U-234 submarine leaves from the Norwegian port in the direction of Japan, but its final destiny is uncertain, dice the development that was taking the events. The decision of Hitler of not using the atomica pump causes one dispersed general one between the High Commands of the SS and the Luftwaffe, those in favor both of the use of the nuclear weapon like alternative unica to force a pact to the desperate one with the allies. Herman Goering will announce its desire to negotiate with the Americans day 23 of April, which will cause its dentención by order of Hitler. At the same time Heinrich Himmler will be put in contact with Count Bernardotte to negotiate a surrender separately, without counting on the Führer. Hitler centers their ultimos resources in a end "heroico" for its regime, with the idea to mark in universal history a épica resistance without precedents, sacrificing until I complete man in the capital of the Reich. Few days despues of the suicide of Hitler, count Schwerin Von krosigk, recien named minister of outer subjects of the efimero government of admiral Doenitz, communicates the agency of the Reuter news that to "..Hitler not habia made use of the last terrible weapon that the Reich had to its disposition... " Day 10 of May Admiral Doenitz signs the unconditional surrender of Germany. The war in Europe had finished. Still had left to Hitler, already dead, one completes trick that to play against its enemies, in the distant war of the Pacifico. Always worried about its complex machinations of politica estetica, the Führer preferred to happen to History without being as the Father of the first atomico attack, leaving the responsibility of that final crime into the hands of the Japanese. Little Hitler imagined who the six of August of 1945 the North Americans, in name of the democracy and the freedom, would stain the hands with WuWa, the Nazi pump finally, causing the instantaneous murder of 150,000 people in a second. A not yet even record of speed in the elimination of human beings. 20. The U-234 submarine day 19 of May of 1945 berths in the port of Portsmouth, New Hampshire (the USA), the enormous German submarine U-234 of class XB. Its arrival is not ningun secret, and as much the local press as national and international they take note from the event. Nothing but to arrive at port, American soldiers with accountants to geiger penetrate in the submarine, preventing that ningun crew member or merchandise some leaves the boat. In just a short time shipment that transports the rendered submarine, consisting of is made I publish valiosisimo 240 tons of diverse material of extreme importance, between which it is possible to emphasize two jet planes 262 disassembled to Me, thousand of planes of rockets and arms, fuses infrared for pumps, and what is but surprising, cans with heavy water (HÒ2) and 560 kilos of uranium. Segun consists in the seized documentation and available publicamente, the final destiny of the submarine one was Japon. The submarine, after receiving previously its load in the port of Kiel, left from the Norwegian port of Kristiansand the 15 of April from 1945 course to Japan, under you order it express of the Head of the Gestapo, Heinrich Müller, and of the own Adolf Hitler. Ademas of the crew, traveled in same navio expert in infrared, Japanese cientificos and two official-engineers who suicidarian themselves shortly before the surrender of the submarine German. From 1945 history and the speculations about the submarine have not let inspire the imagination of numerous writers and scriptwriters, and in 1992 pelicula was even made one, co-produced by Germany, Japon and the United States and directed by the producer Frank Beyer, titled "El I complete submarino", and cradle integramente in the memories written by the telegrapher of the submarine, the official Wolfgang Hirschsfeld. 21.Quinientos sixty kilos of uranium 235: The case Carter Hydrick. In 1998 an executive of the informatica multinational Compaq, call Carter Hydrick, decides to do I publish an interesting book that apparently still continued writing then, titled "Critical Mass", and he partially publishes it in Internet in a dominion of his property, with the direction Carter Hydrick is not a professional historian, but from always she was intrigued with the history of the U234 submarine. After several years investigating by its spent account and 20,000 dolares, Carter Hydrick finds numerous documentation, apparently intrascendente, declassified by the government of the United States, relative to the subject of the mysterious German submarine. In this documentation it finds references to that the uranium transported by the Nazis was not practicamente the inoffensive one I oxidize of uranium 238, so and as they said American official official notices on the case of the catched submarine, but that one was 560 kilos pure of isotopo fissionable U235, sufficient to construct of form immediate 10 identicas atomic pumps to the sent one on Hiroshima. The uranium jealously was packaging in 70 cilindricos tubes with the interior of such plated in gold, with object to avoid the oxidation of a as valuable material as the U235. But the fabulous book of Carter Hydrick never left the press. Its pagina Web it is not accessible from the 25 of November of 1999, and although it seems to continue exerting its executive position in a branch of Compaq in Huston, Texas, any sign of its investigations and appearances you publish has disappeared by completo.Tan single Carter Hydrick is mentioned in a note of press of the local newspaper of Lake Tahoe, with date 23 of May of the 2000, relative to the funerales acts in memory of John Gabriel Hydrick, brother of Carter. Also figure in this note of press brief biografia of the deceased: an effective agent who worked during years processing secret information to the service of the company, the FBI and the NSA. Apparently Carter Hydrick, in their investigations, could have access to documentation of first hand. 22, Manhattan project, May of 1945: There is no pump. The 3 of March of 1945 the senator James F. Byrnes escribio a memorandum directed to the president of the United States in in which it detailed the results to him of the Manhattan project, asi as the abusive cost of two spent trillions of dolares in proyecto.Ademas asked for the suspension of the investigations, dice the course of the war and the exito of the bombings convencionales.En May the desperation in the Manhattan project is total: for a long time one has been giving up to the construction of an operative uranium pump 235, and although sufficient amount of plutonium 239 has taken place - about 15 kilograms has still not been metodo to make implode the plutonium pump. As result in June of 1945 the American politicos are many that cry out by an immediate conclusion of the crazy expenses of the atomica investigation, since they considered that the war practicamente was won and that the brutales bombings of the B-29 against Japan were pressure sufficient to finish the war. But apparently the atomica pump habia also turned "arma diplomatica" for president Truman: its unpunished use would force one rendicíon instantaneous of Japan and would be a serious warning against dangerous Soviet expansionism. 23. The fusible infrared of Von Ardenne and the pump of plutonium When the U-234 submarine surrenders in the port of Portsmouth, a supposed commander of I exercise American call Alvarez speaks with the German crew of navio, and later it is made accompany by the Schlike official, apparently an expert in systems of detonation by infrared that also traveled in the enormous submarine. Ademas "comandante" Alvarez takes of the ship about 1200 fuses of infrared invented by the cientifico German Von Ardenne, ready to be used. The destiny of both, Alvarez and Schlike, is the laboratory of Los Alamos in New Mexico, where Manhattan project is developed to the thickness of the works of the extreme secret. The equipment of investigators of Los Alamos has a serious problem: apparently they have been able to make sufficient plutonium to finish a atomica pump, but they are not able to make explode it. For it they need that a small sphere formed by 32 joined portions of explosive of a form similar to a ball of futbol explodes simultaneamente in a fraction of second. This provocaria explosion the implosion of a plutonium ball, forcing it to reach the density and mass criticizes necessary to cause the atomica deflagration. During long time they have been trying metodos electronicos of detonation, but slight differences of speed in the activation of the detonation fuses cause that the explosives do not explode simultaneamente, and therefore the implosion of the plutonium does not take place. The official captured German Schlike gives the solution them: using the fusible infrared invented by Baron Von Ardenne for the Nazi regime, he obtains himself simultaneamente that the 64 fuses that surround to the 32 segments of conventional explosive detonate at the speed of the light, and causing the necessary implosion of the plutonium. It is the own Schlike that installs the fuses of the pump of the test of Trinity, that it explodes itself the 16 of Julio of 1945 in the desert again Mexico. He is, segun the official version of the winners, the first nuclear blast of history. When the device explodes to first, all are surprised of the power of the deflagration. All less Schlinke. After the war the official German seguiria working in the American nuclear project, benefitted by the Paperclip program from massive recruitment from cientificos and Nazi engineers. And the commander Alvarez? Such commander never existed. The person in charge of the system of detonation of the plutonium of the Manhattan project, the Dr Alvarez, habia disguised of American military man with object to facilmente gain but the confidence of the Nazi military. But late Alvarez would happen to history like the man who had solved the problem of the implosion of the plutonium in I complete minute. Also one would become by his teoria of the disappearance of the dinosaurios as a result of the impact of a meteorite, and ganaria famous finally Nobel of fisica by his discoveries in the field of the technology of infrared. 24. 60 kilos of U235 on Japon. The 16 of Julio cientificos of the Manhattan project make operate his first pump in Alamogordo, a plutonium pump. It did not have but tests, the plutonium pump worked. Nevertheless, which key on Hiroshima the 6 of August of 1945 was not one second pump of plutonium. It was a pump containing 60 kilos of uranium 235. A pump that jamas habia proven and of which the effects of their explosion are desconocian. But late, before the made suspicions which she caused the lack of previous tests with the uranium pump, the people in charge of the Manhattan project argued that she was a pump much but simple that the one of plutonium, that like in a gun it activated shooting a load subcriticizes of uranium on another mass it subcriticizes. They affirmed that they were so safe of the explosion that they considered that a previous test was not necessary. Desconocia if the pump of 60 kilos of Uranian were but powerful that the pump of 15 kilos of proven plutonium the 16 of Julio. Podia was not known either if to cause the feared atmosferica chain reaction, extending its effect to all the planet. In spite of all these importantisimas questions the pump is dropped on the Japanese city before already proven of plutonium. Existia another serious risk: in order to cause maximo damage with the explosion, the firing gear of the pump had to detonate to about 600 meters of the ground, which knows like "ground zero". For it the pump took a delicate system of atmosferica pressure controlled by a very sensible electronico circuit. The pump debia to be mounted and to be armed in flight, few minutes before being sent, with object of which the radiation emitted by hyperactive uranium 235 did not damage the firing circuits and caused the talent did not explode at the adapted moment, or what is still worse, than it gave rise to an explosion precipitated in flight. To that it is necessary to add the estadistico risk: a ten percent of the dropped conventional pumps during World War II almost did not explode. Ademas the pump took a small one paracaidas that restrained its reduction, with object to avoid that a variation of pressure by the caida speed of made it explode in an inadequate level. That also meant that the pump, of not operating, caeria intact in the side japones. The fact that the uranium pump could fall without operating in enemy hands podria to carry consequences gravisimas and unforseeable: the Japanese would have to their disposition 60 kilos of pure uranium 235, that podrian to use quickly in an attack of answer against the United States. The degree of advance of the nuclear program japones was sufficiently developed like understanding the mecanica of the pump of Hiroshima. In fact, when finalizing the war was seized to Japanese the two cyclotrons and at least five nuclear reactors in construction in Japon and Korea, although the state of development of these reactors is todavia a mystery nondeclassified by the government of the United States. Also the several huntings and identicos operative rockets to the used ones by the Germans were confiscated to Japanese. He is facil to find documentation on the project of the plutonium pump. Each one of the phases of its development this sufficiently explained in thousand of articulos and declarations conducted by the artifices of the Manhattan project. Nevertheless, he is but dificil much to find declassified documentation of the uranium pump dropped on Hiroshima. This pump and its use continue causing between historians and bitter experts discussions about its true nature. But the definitive answer to all the provoked questions can be solved with a simple explanation: the uranium pump of Hiroshima already had been proven previously by the Germans in a remote Siberian forest. 25, Oppenheimer, the Churchills and General Putt speak 9 of August of 1945. The Japanese surrender, the war has finished and the state of general euphoria between the allies does that the guard lowers before the press, disappearing temporarily the severe excessive secrecy practiced in the winning side. The cientificos implied in the Manhattan project even make declarations to the press, among them one of the main people in charge of the same one: Oppenheimer affirms in an innocent interview on the hardships and haste that the plutonium pump had caused to its work party. To the being asked for the pump of Hiroshima the fast answer: it was a pump that the German already had proven, was nothing no to investigate, single to use it. But Oppenheimer was not the unico in being generous with its answers. The day veintiseis of August of 1945 aparecio in all newspapers of the world, including "The Times" and "New York Times" an intriguing note of press emitted simultaneamente by the government ingles and by I exercise North American, on the basis of the results of the investigations conducted by group CIOS of allied intelligence: the official notice speaks of the advanced state of the German nuclear investigation, of the importance of the material seized to Nazis and d rumors ERRORS OF 2.001 Almost any film never done has inconsistencias or defects of continuity. From the reappeared ring of Charlton Heston in Horseradish tree Hur, to famous the sixth replicante of Blade Runner (the mystery of which still it is about to to solve) "errores" great as as much small they are an inevitable part of any complex cinematographic accomplishment. But there is a sport between the fans to serious science-fiction films that consist of bucar "errores" scientists of those films; in all of them there is "errores" that they can be pardoned, but a producer who is conceited to present/display his works like a vision "realista" of a possible future, like 2001: an odyssey of the space, must be prepared for a meticulous analysis of their work. And it is that the film considers like one more a possibility higher than the simple entertainment. It is possible to be assumed that Stanley Kubrick had everything in its mind when, along with Arthur C. Clarke, good film was decided to do "más of science-ficcio'n". 2001, as it was, are much more that a science-fiction film. It is a Metaphysical mental opera, a meditation about the origin of the human race; the dawn of the conscience without the human intervention. Kubrick took care of much of the autenticista aspect of science and the technology. That it failed? Stays on the verge of knowing it. Everything what raises... Although Kubrick did not use the airplane of training without gravity of the American Aerial Force, as Rum Howard did for the film Apolo 13, and in spite of the fact that the ship of space passengers greater when rolled 2001 was the Gemini, and nobody had never seen the way in that people would behave in an atmosphere pressurized without gravity, Kubrick tries in pelicula to deliver an attack to portray that atmosphere seriously. Nevertheless, some things are totally inconsecuentes, as it is possible to be seen in diverse scenes: I - During I journey of Floyd towards the Moon, its liquid space food ("Seabrook Farms Liquipack") low by the pajita when the doctor lets aspire, one of the great errors but of pelicula, unless the food container assumes that, that includes "lenguado líquido" ;), he was with negative pressure in his container. II - In spite of the plane introductorio of the footwear of Velcro like a pride in the scenes of lunar transit, the behavior of people who work under the conditionses of weightlessness is quite erratic. One simply could not walk of course of the way that the actors and the extras do it under conditionses of weightlessness, with shoes or not (, many peliculas of ci-fi ignore this point completely; for
WuWa ! - WunderWaffen: El Proyecto Atomico Nazi

1.La historia oficial.
En su wagneriana caida, el tercer Reich mantiene el animo combativo de millones de alemanes con una promesa: la existencia de WuWa, la WunderWaffen, un "arma maravillosa" definitiva que cambiará para siempre el rumbo desfavorable de la guerra. Simultaneamente desde 1942 se desarrolla en Estados Unidos un esfuerzo industrial y cientifico sin precedentes: el llamado "proyecto Manhattan", destinado a crear la bomba atomica.
Estados Unidos sabe que alemania tiene los tecnicos, los cientificos y el poder industrial necesario para abordar la fabricación de la bomba atomica, pero aparentemente desconoce el grado de desarrollo atomico del regimen nazi. La guerra transcurre, y a excepcion de los ataques efectuados por los cohetes V-1 y V-2, y de los aviones a reaccion Me-262, no hay rastro de las anunciadas armas definitivas alemanas.
A principios de 1945 el colapso del ejercito nazi es inminente, sus comunicaciones y suministros han quedado destruidos y en mayo el fin llega tras el suicidio de Adolfo Hitler. Un comando especial del servicio de inteligencia americano, al que se conoce como "alsos", se encarga de investigar y recopilar cualquier información referente al programa de la hipotetica bomba atomica nazi.
Finalmente el comando encuentra, escondido en una gruta excavada bajo una iglesia de Haigerloch, el reactor experimental B-VIII, un tosco recipiente de agua pesada, con un par de inservibles reactores sumergidos en su interior. Samuel Gouldsmit, jefe de la operacion "alsos", es tajante en sus conclusiones: el proyecto de la bomba atomica de Hitler fue un mito creado para someter la voluntad de millones de alemanes a una resitencia sin esperanza en una guerra suicida . La prometida WuWa no existió jamas.

2.Farm Hall: los cientificos alemanes hablan.
Uno de los objetivos principales de la operacion Alsos era capturar a aquellos cientificos alemanes que podían haber jugado un papel considerable en el desarrollo del hipotetico programa atomico nazi. Sin demasiado esfuerzo, son encontrados Heisenberg, creador del principio de incertidumbre y premio Nobel de Fisica, y Otto Hahn, descubridor en 1938 de la fision nuclear, clave para el futuro desarrollo de la bomba atomica.
Tambien son detenidos Kurt Diebner y Walter Gerlach, principales responsables politicos del "uraniorum", el programa "oficial" de energia nuclear aleman, con sede en la llamada "Virus House" de Berlin. Poco despues de la guerra, el puñado de cientificos capturados son internados en una casa de campo equipada con microfonos, a la que se conoce como "Farm Hall".Alli se observan atentamente las reacciones y conversaciones de los sabios, con objeto de conocer en profundidad el estado de las investigaciones nucleares durante el tercer Reich.
Se obtienen algunos datos: en 1942, se reunen en Berlin Heisenberg y Albert Speer, entonces flamante ministro de armamento del Reich, en sustitución del recientemente fallecido Dr. Todt. Heisenberg le comunica a Speer que no es posible tecnicamente una bomba atomica en un plazo inferior a tres o cuatro años, y que solo es interesante y practico un esfuerzo orientado al desarrollo de un reactor nuclear que permita la propulsion de submarinos. En consecuencia Albert Speer otorga al grupo de Heisenberg la escasa cantidad de dos millones de marcos, cifra veinte veces superior al ridiculo presupuesto inicial solicitado por el propio Heisenberg. Despues de tres años, los resultados de dicha investigación nuclear son practicamente nulos. No hay reactor, no hay bomba.Tan solo un ciclotrón que es rapidamente incautado por los rusos en su avance hacia Berlín, y un reactor no operativo en el pequeño pueblo de Haigerloch.
Cuando el 6 de agosto de 1945 les es comunicada la explosion de la bomba atomica de Hiroshima a los retenidos en Farm Hall, la incredulidad y sorpresa de los alemanes es absoluta.
Todo quedara reflejado finalmente en un libro escrito por el propio Samuel Gouldsmit: "Myths around the german atomic Bomb", en el que se concluye que la investigación cientifica y tecnologica era inviable en la tiranica alemania nazi, y que dicho avance solo es posible en los paises que se ajustan a los esquemas de la democracia liberal angloamericana. Punto final.

3.Los recortados poderes de Speer.
Para comprender la complejidad y misterio de la existencia de un posible programa atomico nazi, es necesario entender primeramente los mecanismos de poder que se establecian en el tercer Reich: Adolf Hitler era el jefe supremo e indiscutible de Alemania, y era extremadamente dificil determinar quien podia ser, algun dia, su sucesor en el cargo. En la alemania nazi no habia segundo de a bordo, no habia un verdadero paladín.
Desde antes de la ascensión de Hitler al poder hubo violentas luchas internas en el partido nacional socialista, con objeto de acaparar el control no solo de los mecanismos para el beneficio propio de cada contendiente, sino para una posible futura herencia del poder total en la cabeza del Reich. Mucho se ha criticado la ineficacia de la investigación de guerra nazi, al provocar que muchos proyectos con un objetivo aparentemente común se desarrollaran en paralelo y sin ninguna colaboración mutua.
La inmensa variedad de tipos de armas, aviones, tanques e incluso ejercitos y uniformes, produjo una fertil competencia entre las diferentes partes de la maquinaria de guerra nazi, dando lugar a un increible avance tecnologico en todos los ordenes y actividades, sobre todo si los comparamos con las pobres y conservadoras innovaciones realizadas por los aliados, siempre preocupados en copiar mediante el masivo uso de organizaciones de espionaje las invenciones realizadas en la Alemania nazi, aunque a la postre dicha variedad tecnica fuera finalmente uno de los factores de mas peso en la derrota final del Reich, provocando un derroche prohibitivamente caro de los recursos disponibles.
Albert Speer no se libro de la mecanica de funcionamiento del regimen, y en su labor como ministro de armamento sus atribuciones se encontraban fuertemente limitadas a garantizar a la industria de guerra alemana las materias primas, la energía y la mano de obra necesarias para que el motor siguiera en marcha.
Speer permaneció desde 1943 totalmente ajeno a la verdadera naturaleza del programa de cohetes, que dependía desde ese año de la estructura de las SS de Himler, con quien Speer mantenia una mutua y profunda enemistad personal. Jamas hubo intercambio alguno de información entre ambas partes, a excepcion de los requerimientos imprescindibles para la entrega de materias primas. En sus memorias Speer consideraba que el programa de cohetes V-2 era una total estupidez, un capricho mas de la compleja fantasia geopolitica de Hitler, aunque el propio Speer lo habia apoyado mientras estaban las V-2 bajo el control del ejercito.
Como resultado del escepticismo de Speer, Hitler desde 1943 no le comentaba a éste nada sobre el programa de investigación sobre cohetes, ya que el führer conocia por anticipado la respuesta de Speer . Igual ocurrio con el programa de aviones secretos a reacción, dependientes por entero de la Luftwaffe de Goering, con quien Speer mantenia a su vez una relacion tensa. Speer llegó a presenciar el despegue de una V-2, pero aun despues de la guerra Speer permaneció absolutamente ignorante respecto a los proyectos de bombarderos intercontinentales a reacción, como los Horten XVIII o el Arado E 555, asi como desconocía la mera existencia de los aviones caza de despegue vertical como el Focke-Wulf Triebflugel o el Natter.
Incluso las V-1, construidas por la Luftwaffe de Goering, y las V-2, dependientes del ejercito y luego de las SS, crecieron y se desarrollaron de forma separada y en competencia. Quien piense en una estructura de mando estratificada y unitaria en la dirección de armamentos al estilo de lo que ocurria entonces en los Estados Unidos, en Inglaterra o en Rusia, una estructura que estuviera bajo el control total de Albert Speer, se equivoca: solo Hitler estaba en conocimiento de la totalidad de las acciones y proyectos que se realizaban en su Reich, informacion valiosisima que el führer no dudaba en usar y administrar para fomentar una dura competencia entre los diferentes grupos y reforzar su poder personal.
Por eso la muerte de Hitler significó la desaparición instantanea de la estructura politica del nazismo, a pesar de que el apoyo social a dicha ideologia era extremadamente fuerte entre la poblacion alemana, aún muchos meses despues de la derrota militar. Por ultimo el atentado del 20 de Julio de 1944 contra Hitler supuso otro duro revés para el poder de Speer: aunque nunca se demostró su participación directa en el complot, su nombre figuraba en el futuro gobierno de los golpistas. Solo la intervencion personal de Hitler evitó su encarcelamiento y juicio por alta traición.

4.Heisenberg, el "judio blanco"
Tal y como puede leerse en el libro de Samuel Goudsmit, en las memorias de Heisenberg y en numerosas declaraciones hechas tras la guerra, Heisenberg nunca trabajo en el proyecto de una bomba atómica alemana. Tal circunstancia era un imposible en la alemania nazi. El prestigio del premio nobel era grande en alemania, pero todos sabian que el famoso cientifico era también el antiguo amigo y compañero de Einstein, de Niels Bohr, o de Lise Mietner, todos ellos embarcados en el ambicioso proyecto Manhattan americano.
El regimen nacional-socialista desconfiaba de Heisenberg, a quien los dirigentes nazis llamaban "el judio blanco", como tambien desconfiaban de los fisicos teoricos en general, por considerar que la fisica atomica se habia convertido en un asunto de "ciencia especulativa", "ciencia judia", inutil al desarrollo practico de soluciones militares de uso inmediato. El tercer Reich era esencialmente un regimen pragmatico, basado en la ingenieria y la tecnologia, y la totalidad de sus desarrollos criticos estaban en manos de ingenieros, no de cientificos.
El descubridor de la fision nuclear en 1938, Otto Hahn, tambien estaba descartado para encabezar el programa de un arma nuclear para Alemania. Hahn era un pacifista radical, que mostraba una fuerte oposicion al desarrollo de cualquier tipo de armas, tras haber colaborado durante la primera guerra mundial en la produccion de armas quimicas y gases, circunstancia que le dejo profundamente marcado para el resto de su vida. Tanto el ejercito como las SS consideraron que era peligroso forzar a Hahn a construir la bomba atomica, ya que temian que este falsificara o boicoteara intimamente el desarrollo del programa nuclear militar.

5.Trabajo en paralelo: tres proyectos atomicos nazis.
Al menos tres grupos de trabajo sobre el proyecto atomico se estaban desarrollando simultaneamente en la alemania nazi: el oficial, financiado por el propio ministro Albert Speer, y que bajo la direccion de Walter Gerlach y Kurt Diebner incluia tambien a Werner Heisenberg y a Otto Hahn . Su trabajo estaba orientado a la fisica teorica pura, sin conexion directa con el esfuerzo militar aleman, salvo para la creación a largo plazo de un reactor para motores submarinos.
Tal como reflejan los diarios de Speer, un segundo grupo lo constituia el ministro de Telecomunicaciones, Dr. Ingeniero Wilhem Ohnesorge, en colaboración con la Werchmacht y posteriormente con las SS, tutelando el trabajo del famoso fisico Baron Von Ardenne, quien desarrollaria la separacion del uranio enriquecido 235 mediante una tecnica de centrifugación del hexafluoruro de uranio en sus laboratorios subterraneos de Berlin. Este grupo firmaria un contrato con la compañia Auer, en donde otro ingeniero llamado Nikolaus Riehl inventaria un sistema de refinado rapido del oxido de uranio.
Un tercer grupo, comandado por el eficaz general Kammler y controlado por las SS, colaboraba con la luftwaffe en la creacion de un programa nuclear independiente, en el que obtendrian resultados operativos a mediados de 1943. Dicho grupo trabajaba con un grado extremo de secretismo, y a partir de 1943 se fusionaria con el proyecto nuclear del Reichpost de Ohnesorge. Ese mismo año las SS se harian con el emporio industrial hungaro "Arden-Weiss", donde se montarian todas las bombas atomicas nazis.

6. General Kammler: las SS se quedan con los proyectos Wunderwaffe
A raiz del atentado del 19 de Julio de 1944 contra Adolf Hitler, la totalidad de los proyectos considerados como alto secreto son absorbidos por las SS, en un proyecto finalmente unificado bajo el mando del general Kammler. Seria este general el que arrebataria al ejercito no solo el proyecto nuclear WuWa, sino tambien el control del programa de cohetes V-2 y los futuros A-9 y A-10 de misiles intercontinentales. Poco se sabe del General - Ingeniero Hans Kammler, salvo que vivia en el mismo edificio que el Baron Manfred Von Ardenne, y que visitaba frecuentemente los laboratorios subterraneos de Von Ardenne situados en los sotanos anti-aereos de ese mismo edificio.
Kammler sustituiria a Speer en muchas areas de la organización de trabajo Todt, y desarrollaria un sistema administrativo paralelo al estado, totalmente computerizado. Construiria a espaldas del ejercito y del ministerio de armamento las fabulosas instalaciones subterraneas de Turingia, en donde tambien se localizaban el grueso de las minas de uranio de Alemania y Checoslovaquia.
Tras la guerra, el General Dr. Hans Kammler desapareció sin dejar rastro. Aunque segun informes de la CIA desclasificados recientemente, existen indicios suficientes de su supervivencia tras la guerra y de su participacion, con otra identidad, en el programa nuclear ruso a partir de 1945.

7. El brillante Baron Von Ardenne.
Es inutil buscar en una enciclopedia occidental alguna informacion sobre el Baron Von Ardenne. Sin embargo, en la extinta alemania oriental era una especie de Edison a la alemana. Cientos de calles, colegios y edificios publicos llevan aun hoy su nombre. Von Ardenne, prolifico inventor aleman, adquiriria fama mundial antes de la guerra gracias a sus descubrimientos en el terreno de la emision televisiva, desarrollando el sistema de transmision de las olimpiadas de Berlin de 1936.
Durante la guerra inventaria el microscopio electrónico y los visores nocturnos de infrarojos, asi como los fusibles infra-rojos para explosivos que fueron finalmente usados para implosionar bombas como la de plutonio lanzada en Nagasaki.
Von Ardenne fue clave para el desarrollo del sistema de separacion de los isotopos U238 y U235 mediante super centrifugadoras.Tras la guerra seria entregado a los rusos por el general Kammler, desarrollando el programa nuclear sovietico dentro de la empresa ruso-germano-oriental WISMUT, localizada en Turingia. Mas tarde trabajó en el Instituto para la separacion industrial de isotopos ( SUCHUMI ) en la union Sovietica.
Desde 1955 fue fundador y director del instituto de investigacion germano oriental de Dresde de lucha contra el cancer, donde desarrolló un sistema de tratamiento de tumores por radiacion atomica. Von Ardenne murio el 26 de mayo de 1997. Su compañia aun existe y es clave para la economia de la antigua alemania oriental.

8. Uranio enriquecido U-235: quien llegó antes?
El uranio que puede encontrarse en la naturaleza esta compuesto en un 99% de uranio 238, no fisionable y por tanto no apto para hacer bombas atomicas, y un 1% de uranio 235, facilmente fisionable. Una excepcion son las minas de Oklo, en el pais centroafricano de Gabón, en donde en 1972 se encontró uranio natural con un 70% de isotopo U235 y vetas de mineral que generaban reacciones sostenidas espontaneas, asi como cantidades significativas de plutonio 239 en estado natural.
El proceso de separacion de los isotopos de uranio es muy complejo, ya que no puede hacerse por via quimica, solo mecanicamente. Los norteamericanos del proyecto Manhattan usaron un sistema de confinamiento electromagnetico de separación de isotopos, llamado calutrón, que tras dos años de arduos trabajos y un gasto cercano al billon de dolares, solo habia producido dos gramos de U235 a finales de 1944.
Posteriormente, en enero de 1945 los americanos iniciaron otro procedimiento de separacion basado en un costoso sistema de filtrado mediante membranas de polvo de niquel comprimido del gas hexafluoruro de Uranio, que, aun siendo mas eficaz, apenas permitió tener disponibles dos kilogramos de U235 en Julio de 1945.
El tercer sistema basado en un sistema supercentrifugo, inventado por el alemán Von Ardenne para la produccion masiva de U235 fue un exito, pero dicho sistema solo fue conocido por los americanos desde 1958 y usado por los rusos desde 1946, despues de la guerra.
El sistema consiste en una cadena de tubos en cascada de unos 10 a 15 centimetros de diametro que se hacen girar a una 30.000 revoluciones por segundo. El hexafluoruro de uranio con u235, mas ligero que el que contiene u238, permanece en el centro del cilindro, de donde es absorbido e inyectado en un nuevo cilindro centrifugo, y asi sucesivamente hasta conseguir una pureza de u235 del 95%.
Otro ingeniero austriaco llamado Gernot Zippe que colaboro con Von Ardenne y que fue capturado tambien por los rusos, consiguio emigrar a los estados unidos en 1958, atribuyendose la invencion del sistema centrifugo y patentandolo en occidente en 1960, en donde se conoce como Metodo Zippe de enriquecimiento de Uranio. Desde 1960 hasta 1985 el sistema centrifugo fue usado tambien en Estados Unidos. Es diez veces mas eficaz y de mucho menor consumo electrico que el sistema de filtrado americano. Aun hoy los rusos siguen usando el sistema centrifugo, y de hecho son los mayores productores del mundo de U235. El sistema de enriquecimiento mediante cascada de supercentrifugadoras es usado ademas en Holanda, Corea del Norte, China, Iran, Irak e Israel.
Como resultado de lo anterior, y ante la imposibilidad del proyecto americano de realizar una bomba de uranio 235, enfocaron todos sus esfuerzos en la fabricación de una bomba de plutonio 239, elemento artificial tambien fisionable apto para la fabricación de bombas. En 1942 el fisico italiano del proyecto Manhattan, Enrico Fermi, consiguio poner en funcionamiento sostenido un reactor nuclear que permitia la fabricacion de plutonio Pu239, mediante la radiación intensiva del uranio 238. A pesar de todo, los Estados Unidos solo disponian de 6 kilogramos de plutonio a mediados de Julio de 1945.

9. Una prueba antes de la ofensiva de Kursk.
En las visperas de la batalla de Kursk, un teletipo por valija diplomatica fue enviado a todas las embajadas alemanas en Europa. En dicho comunicado se informaba de que habia sido realizada con exito la prueba de una bomba nueva, de poco tamaño y formidable potencia.
Se trataba de una bomba mixta de explosivo convencional y una pequeña cantidad de material fisionable que habria hecho las veces de fulminante de alto poder sobre la carga de explosivo convencional. Pero los alemanes ya tenian una prueba de la eficacia de sus metodos en el manejo de material nuclear. Y lo que es mas importante: ya en 1943 los alemanes hicieron acertadas estimaciones de la potencia de una bomba atomica de uranio.
De 1943 son los detallados planes nazis de ataque nuclear contra Nueva York ideados por la OKL, la oficina de la Luftwaffe de Hermann Goering, en donde se especificaban exactamente los valores en kilocalorias por kilometro cubico del efecto de una explosion nuclear en Manhattan, y que coincidian por completo con los 15 kilotones de la bomba que seria usada el 6 de agosto de 1945 sobre Hiroshima.

10. Hitler tranquiliza a Mussolini.
En Abril de 1944 tuvo lugar una importante reunion en el castillo de Klessheim de Salzburgo, a la que asistieron Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, el mariscal Rodolfo Graziani, Von Ribbentrop, Keitel, Dollman y el embajador de alemania en Italia, Rhan.
Con objeto de tranquilizar a su aliado, Hitler le transmitio una informacion extraordinaria, corroborada por varios testigos en declaraciones hechas tras la guerra.
Hitler dijo: "..tenemos aeroplanos a reacción, tenemos submarinos no interceptables, artilleria y carros colosales, sistemas de vision nocturna, cohetes de potencia excepcional y una bomba cuyo efecto asombrara al mundo. Todo esto se acumula en nuestros talleres subterraneos con rapidez sorprendente. El enemigo lo sabe, nos golpea, nos destruye, pero a su destruccion responderemos con el huracán y sin necesidad de recurrir a la guerra bacteriologica para la cual nos encontramos igualmente a punto. No hay una sola de mis palabras que no tenga el sufragio de la verdad. !Vereis!.."

11. Luigi Romersa. Isla de Rügen, 12 de octubre de 1944, 11:45 AM. Test atomico.
A principios de Octubre de 1944 el periodista italiano Luigi Romersa, ya famoso por su reportaje sobre la liberación de Mussolini efectuada un año antes por tropas especiales alemanas, recibia del Duce una mision extremadamente importante: viajar a Alemania con objeto de informarle de los avances realizados en el Tercer Reich en el campo de las armas secretas.
El periodista fue llevado a visitar las instalaciones subterraneas de Turingia, las rampas de lanzamiento de las todavía desconocidas V-2, y lo que seria mas importante: una prueba de la bomba atomica alemana totalmente operativa.
En varios articulos escritos desde 1947 en prestigiosas revistas militares europeas, el periodista Luigi Romersa declaró ser testigo de una prueba nuclear alemana el 12 de octubre de 1944 a las 11:45 AM en la isla de Rügen, en el mar baltico y proxima a la base de Peenemunde, donde se realizaron la mayor parte de las investigaciones sobre cohetes.
La magnitud de la explosion atomica fue captada fotograficamente desde varios lugares de la costa baltica, y la onda sismica provocada por la detonación fue detectada en la distante Estocolmo.
Dos meses despues, el 16 de Diciembre de 1944 un entusiasmado Mussolini pronunciaria su ultimo discurso publico ante miles de fascistas en el teatro lirico de Milan, anunciandoles el inminente ataque germano contra las principales ciudades aliadas, un ataque definitivo con bombas y cohetes de potencia extraordinaria, bombas con capacidad de destruir ciudades enteras en un instante.
EL 20 de Abril de 1945 Mussolini volveria a hablar de las bombas atomicas alemanas. Llama al periodista G.G. Cabella, antiguo amigo y director del periodico "il popolo d´Alessandria", y le dicta el que seria despues considerado como "testamento politico" del Duce. Mussolini afirma con rotundidad en la entrevista que los alemanes tenian ya tres bombas terminadas, y que su uso puede suponer un vuelco de la situación.
Al menos un documento oficial desclasificado hace referencia a la prueba de Rügen: El 24 de enero de 1946, un piloto de la Flak antiaerea alemana llamado Ziesser es interrogado por el capitan Helenes T. Freiberger de la inteligencia americana. Dicho piloto hace una descripcion detallada del lugar y momento del test nuclear, que coincide exactamente con el informe de Romersa.

12. Jonastal III C: La fortaleza subterranea de Turingia
La sospecha de que los alemanes estaban consiguiendo resultados en la investigacion nuclear provocó, a finales de 1944, un incremento exponencial de los ataques de la aviacion aliada, con objeto de desbaratar la maquinaria belica alemana.
Pero los aliados desconocian donde estaban las famosa factorias secretas, asi que procedieron a un bombardeo sistematico de todo el territorio aleman, incluyendo cualquier objetivo militar y tambien civil. Pero la industria secreta nazi estaba fuera del alcance de las bombas aliadas: se encontraba a muchos metros de profundidad en la montañosa region de turingia donde interminables tuneles alimentaban el trabajo de cientos de miles de obreros encargados de dar forma a los sueños mas arriesgados de Hitler.
Solo en la gigantesca instalacion Jonastal S III trabajaban y malvivian mas de treinta mil obreros en una ciudad subterranea de veinticinco kilometros de longitud. Mas tarde los rusos ocuparian esas ciudades subterraneas, ubicadas precisamente sobre los ricos yacimientos de uranio del sudeste de Alemania, y crearian desde 1946 la compañia rusa WISMUT, que durante los 40 años siguientes llegaria a fabricar mas de 200.000 kilos de uranio enriquecido U235 destinados a equipar el arsenal sovietico de bombas atomicas. Posteriormente las minas y ciudades subterraneas serian dinamitadas, y aun hoy el acceso a la zona sigue estando terminantemente prohibido por las autoridades de la reunificada alemania.

13. Un He177 preparado para la guerra atomica:
En las factorias Skoda en Praga, Chekoslovaquia, se preparó oficialmente un misterioso avion, el Heinkel He 177-A5 Greif prototipo V38 dotado de un sistema de bombardeo a gran altitud, inusual en la Luftwaffe, y equipado tambien con un complejo sistema externo de enganche de bombas, proteccion anti-radiacion, un sofisticado equipamiento electronico y una estructura de operación muy similar a la que equipaba al americano B-29 Enola Gay, que en Agosto de 1945 lanzó la bomba atomica de Hiroshima.
Dicho He177 modificado ha levantado siempre dudas respecto al alcance del programa nuclear aleman entre los historiadores y los aficionados a la historia de la aviación. El alcance de vuelo de dicha version modificada del He 177 era superior a los 6500 kilometros, con una carga util de cinco toneladas en bombas. Suficientes prestaciones para llegar a Nueva York, ciudad situada a una distancia practicamente equidistante, desde el centro de Europa, a la remota y deshabitada region siberiana de Tunguska. En el ultimo plan de vuelo de aquel He177 figuraba un viaje al aeropuerto militar de Kristiansand, en Noruega.

14. La misteriosa explosion de Tunguska.
El 30 de Junio de 1908 un gran meteorito cruzaba los cielos de siberia central. Su impacto fue visible en muchos kilometros a la redonda, y aparentemente sus efectos provocaron extraños sucesos luminosos en todos los cielos del mundo y quedo tambien registrado en los sismografos de Londres.
Aunque hay quien asigna el fenomeno de la luminosidad a la explosion del volcan peleano de Colima en Mexico, ocurrida tambien en 1908. Ese año fue especialmente activo, con numerosas erupciones volcanicas y grandes terremotos como el de Messina en Italia. Tambien parecen existir errores graves de datación de todos esos registros, que no tienen en cuenta la diferencia de varias semanas entre el calendario gregoriano occidental y el usado entonces por los rusos.
Casi veinte años despues, un misterioso explorador ruso con aspecto digno de un casting de Hollywood, Leonid Kulik, organiza en 1927 una expedicion en busca del meteorito siberiano, cuyo lugar de impacto nadie habia visto ni localizado hasta entonces. 1927 es tambien el año en que Stalin asume la totalidad del poder sovietico.
Es un mal año para hacer ciencia: tras una dura y larga guerra civil, nadie puede moverse libremente en la union sovietica, a riesgo de terminar pereciendo en algun gulag. Pero finalmente Kulik montado en su trineo y atravesando la impracticable y densa tundra boscosa siberiana (aun hoy solo es posible ir en helicoptero), encuentra milagrosamente un remoto valle arrasado por el efecto de una gigantesca explosion.
Y es el primer ser humano en ver aquel espectaculo. No hay crater de meteorito, pero en un radio de varios kilometros solo hay los restos de miles de arboles derribados por una fuerza brutal. Posteriores expediciones en los años treinta y cuarenta realizan algunos reportajes fotograficos aereos del evento, y en 1946 un cientifico ruso, Alexander Kazantsev, escribe un libro contando por primera vez la historia del explorador Kulik y atribuyendo la causa del fenomeno a "la explosion atomica de una nave extraterrestre" .
No existe documentacion publicada anterior al año 1946 referente al fenomeno de Tunguska ni dentro ni fuera de Rusia. Solo algunas notas de los diarios de 1904 a 1910 reportando la vision de la caida de varios meteoritos perdidos en aquella remota y despoblada region de siberia.
Hasta aqui la historia oficial, que durante las ultimas cinco decadas ha traido en jaque a astronomos, geologos y un descomunal ejercito de ufologos y parapsicologos con la mision de explicar lo inexplicable. Pero la realidad pudo facilmente ser otra: En 1946 Stalin se encuentra en el maximo apogeo de su poder: ha ganado una guerra, ha eliminado a todos sus enemigos, como Leon Trotsky, borrando toda huella de su existencia, falsificando incluso las fotografias que construyen la historia sovietica. 1945 - 1946 es tambien el año en que los americanos empiezan a enviar sus aviones espía sobre el territorio de su antiguo y ahora preocupante aliado comunista.
En 1945, a Stalin le apetece muy poco que los americanos descubran Tunguska, una enorme muestra de la vulnerabilidad de su imperio sovietico: La huella del ataque con una bomba atomica realizado por los alemanes el 23 de Febrero de 1945.

15. La Hiroshima siberiana
Hiroshima, 6 de agosto de 1945: a setecientos metros de altura ( el llamado "ground zero point"), estalla un ingenio capaz de destruir toda una ciudad. Con la luminosidad de mil soles, la deflagracion arrasa y volatiliza todo en un radio de un kilometro y medio. Su onda de choque destroza en segundos cualquier ser o cosa incluida en el interior de un circulo de ocho kilometros de diametro.
Bajo el epicentro de la explosión, los arboles permanecen milagrosamente de pie, al llegarles verticalmente la onda de choque. Igual que en Tunguska, donde los arboles del epicentro permanecen aún en pie a pesar de las decadas pasadas.
La explosión de Tunguska es tambien parecida a la de Hiroshima en la cota de explosion: la topologia de la zona y el mapa del efecto muestran que la catastrofe es parada por un monte con una altura de apenas seiscientos metros sobre el fondo del valle: el hipotetico "meteorito" o el "ovni" de tunguska explotó a unos 600 metros de altitud. La de Hiroshima explotó a 565 metros.
El radio de destruccion total es de un kilometro y medio, aunque aún es posible rastrear los efectos de la onda de choque a mas de diez kilometros de distancia.
El incendio posterior al fenomeno multiplicara por treinta el area destruida, lo que a la postre provocará que muchos especialistas imaginen una explosion miles de veces mas fuerte que la de Hiroshima, similar a una bomba de Hidrogeno. Es una exageración: una explosion asi habría volatilizado los arboles del epicentro, no habría quedado rastro alguno de ellos. Se trataba pues de una explosion de unos 20 kilotones, como en Hiroshima.
Todas las investigaciones realizadas en los ultimos cincuenta años apuntan a una hipotesis imposible en 1908: Una explosion nuclear.
Pero todos sabemos que en 1908 no habia bombas atomicas, aunque si hubo una notable actividad de meteoritos y cometas en la zona, acribillada durante siglos por crateres de impactos reconocibles, distintos a Tunguska en todos los aspectos. De ahí que haya que recurrir a estramboticas explicaciones sobre naves extraterrestres o desintegracion de cometas.
Todos los especialistas discuten el origen de la explosion, pero nadie pone en duda el hecho de que la explosion de Tunguska ocurriera realmente en 1908. Es muy probable que el poco fiable pero inteligente Stalin nos haya engañado una vez mas con la fecha de nacimiento del fenomeno Tunguska, falsificandolo en mas de 40 años. No hay documento alguno publicado, anterior a 1945, que hable o se refiera a dicha explosion, en ningun idioma, incluido el ruso. Los supuestos estudios de 1930 atribuidos a FJW Whipple , de la Royal Meteorological Society de Londres, hacen refencia a grandes meteoritos caidos en Siberia a principios de siglo, que nada tienen que ver con Tunguska.

16. Stalin y la fabricacion del mito de Tunguska.
Todas las fotografias existentes de Tunguska muestran un espectaculo identico: la devastacion sin precedentes de una gigantesca masa forestal.
Dichas fotografias son al menos de 1927, segun las propias fuentes sovieticas , año en el que segun se dice Leonid Kulik descubrio el sitio tras realizar su prosaica y afortunada expedición en trineo, atravesando miles de kilometros de bosque impenetrable. Las fotografias aereas son, segun las fuentes, algo mas tardias, de finales de los años treinta.Sin embargo ofrecen el mismo espectaculo: desolación total, ninguna recuperación forestal a pesar de haber transcurrido mas de treinta años del suceso.
A partir de 1946, la recuperación del bosque de Tunguska parece casi instantanea, al igual que ocurrio en los años siguientes al bombardeo de Hiroshima, por efecto de la radiación. Una milagrosa respuesta retardada de la naturaleza?
Pero tenemos un buen ejemplo cercano: En 1980 se produce la explosion volcanica del monte St. Helen, situado en el estado de washington, en el extremo noroeste de los estados unidos. Una fuerza un millon de veces mayor que la del fenomeno de Tunguska hace desaparecer media montaña, y destruye y derriba millones de arboles en un radio de decenas de kilometros. Pero la secuencia de fotografias realizadas con posterioridad nos revelan la casi total y espectacular recuperación de los bosques vecinos al volcan en solo quince años.
Sin embargo, casi cuarenta años despues de la misteriosa explosion de Tunguska, en 1946, el aspecto del devastado panorama forestal es aún identico al de los bosques de St. Helen en 1981, solo un año despues de la catastrofe americana. Algo parecido ocurre en Hiroshima: pero por efecto de la radiación, se produce un crecimiento vegetal acelerado en el area previamente destruida por la bomba atomica. De ser cierta la hipotesis sovietica de la historia de Kulik, en 1927 la recuperación del bosque de Tunguska tendría que haber sido casi completa.
Todo parece indicar que la explosion de Tunguska no pudo ocurrir en 1908: Se trata de una sofisticada falsificación de los servicios secretos de Stalin, que ocultaron las huellas de la misteriosa deflagración tras la cortina de humo de la caida de varios metereoritos ocurrida a principios de siglo en un area indeterminada de Siberia y tras una fantastica historia de una supuesta expedición de busqueda que parte justamente al comenzar el estalinismo, y que termina en 1942, al morir Leonid A. Kulik a los sesenta años de edad, en el frente del este luchando contra los alemanes... y al ser detenido, exterminado por el tifus y desintegrado en un campo de concentración aleman !! . (Conviene señalar aqui que los rusos nunca enviaron al frente a nadie que supiera algo mas que leer y escribir. Todos los hombres y mujeres de formación superior quedaron desde el primer dia exentos del combate y eran usados en las industrias sovieticas de retaguardia. Mucho menos eran enviados al frente cientificos de sesenta años de edad.)

17.¿ Porque atacar Tunguska?
Cuando en 1943 le fue mostrado a Adolfo Hitler el funcionamiento del nuevo y revolucionario caza a reacción Me262, reaccionó de una forma aparentemente ilogica: decidió convertir el nuevo caza en un bombardero tactico, ante la sorpresa y consternacion de los militares presentes. Hitler veia en aquel caza la posibilidad de mostrar a sus enemigos que aún podia atacarles y bombardearles con total impunidad, al igual que hacian los aliados usando los gigantescos raids de bombarderos que azotaban alemania.
Otro tanto ocurrió con el misil V-2. Aun siendo una maravilla tecnica, militarmente la V-2 fue un fracaso absoluto. Provocó mas muertos entre las tropas encargadas de su manejo y construcción que como resultado de su impacto en territorio enemigo. Muchos, entre ellos el propio ministro de armamentos Albert Speer, sabian que en aquellos momentos el programa de cohetes era un inmenso gasto superfluo para el Reich, pero Hitler lo veía de otra manera.
La V-2 era para él un "arma diplomatica", un instrumento que podia forzar a los aliados a una tregua o a firmar una paz provocada por el miedo. Hitler nunca envio las V-2 contra los sovieticos, ya que simplemente no consideraba que esa fuera una medida de presión contra Stalin y su ejercito, disperso y casi indiferente a la destrucción y las perdidas humanas.
El Führer era un obseso de la geopolitica. Para él, cualquier accion podia tener consecuencias politicas indirectas, tan barrocas e imprevisibles que pocos en su entorno eran capaces de detectar o adivinar. Este mismo criterio le empujó a firmar el pacto de no agresion con Rusia en 1939, a declarar la guerra a los americanos en 1941 para asi presionar a los japoneses a un ataque contra la retaguardia Rusa, o a retirar las mejores tropas SS de la batalla de Kursk en su punto algido y enviarlas a Italia, con objeto de reforzar la moral de los italianos aun leales a Mussolini tras su derrocamiento de 1943. Así era Hitler.
Para Hitler la bomba atomica era en esencia otra "arma diplomatica" para cambiar de raiz el curso de los acontecimientos y descubriendo por primera vez una forma de hacer politica que mas adelante todo el mundo llamaría "politica de disuasión nuclear". Bombardear una remota y deshabitada región de Siberia ofrecía varias ventajas, seguramente inexplicables para cualquiera que no estuviese familiarizado con la psicologia del jefe del Reich.
No habia forma de dañar seriamente a los sovieticos con una sola bomba atomica, ya que su industria y su ejercito estaban dispersos por la inmensidad sovietica.
Otra cosa habría sido que Hitler hubiera dispuesto de varios cientos de bombas como la de Hiroshima, que, bien empleadas en el frente del este podian haber desintegrado buena parte del ejercito Ruso. El riesgo que corrían los alemanes era minimo, en caso de que la bomba no explotara al ser lanzada sobre Tunguska . El artefacto atomico quedaria perdido en el denso y desierto bosque siberiano, sin posibilidad de ser recuperado y reutilizado de forma inmediata por los sovieticos.
Bombardeando intencionadamente una zona desertica de Siberia, Hitler evitaba incrementar el odio y la represalia que las tropas rusas, ya en territorio aleman, estaban mostrando contra la poblacion y el ejercito germano conquistados. Con la explosion en Tunguska advertian a Stalin y sus aliados de la existencia del arma atómica.
El objetivo de Hitler era esencialmente otro: persuadir a los anglo-americanos de que era mejor firmar un acuerdo, o de lo contrario podía bombardear Nueva York o Washington, objetivos aereos equidistantes a la lejana Tunguska, si tomamos como punto de referencia el centro de Europa. Hitler confiaba en que los rusos hablaran inmediatamente a los americanos de la explosión de Tunguska, y que despues ellos sacaran conclusiones al medir las distancias, y descubrieran que podian ser susceptibles a un ataque atómico nazi.
En la mente de Hitler, Tunguska era por tanto el sitio ideal para dejar caer la primera bomba atomica operativa de la historia, una bomba identica a la de Hiroshima.
Pero una vez mas, sus sofisticadas espectativas geopoliticas chocarian con el pragmatismo elemental de sus enemigos angloamericanos y rusos, que rara vez cedieron o entendieron las complejas maquinaciones politicas hitlerianas. El Jefe del Reich de los mil años aun tendría fuerzas para organizar su ultima "gran jugada geopolitica", quizá la mas exitosa, a la vista de las fuertes polemicas, la represión y censura que aun suscita lo "nazi", y los millones de admiradores del nacional-socialismo que hay en el mundo casi sesenta años despues: la creación del mito historico de la resistencia del regimen nazi en Berlin hasta la aniquilación total.

18. Hitler promete la victoria final
En su ultima alocucion radiada del dia 23 de Febrero de 1945, el propio Adolf Hitler promete la victoria final, mientras declara, en boca de un dramatico Joseph Goebbels, que pide a Dios que le perdone por hacer uso de un arma demoledora y definitiva. Esa misma mañana ha tenido conocimiento de la mision exitosa del Heinkel He 177 que habia despegado doce horas antes desde un aeropuerto en checoslovaquia. Optimista por la prueba atomica, se atreve incluso a visitar personalmente a sus tropas, que se baten en el frente del Oder.
El ambicioso plan pretende mostrar a los aliados el poder de la nueva arma, asi como el radio de bombardeo aun posible de la aviación nazi, con objeto de forzar una tregua en ambos frentes del conflicto.
Hitler pensaba que la a practica equidistancia de Tunguska a Turingia y de Nueva York a Kristiansand (el punto de Europa bajo control aleman mas cercano a la costa este americana ) forzaría a los americanos a pensar en la posibilidad de una ataque alemán contra alguna superpoblada ciudad de la costa este estadounidense.
Simultaneamente se comunica al neutral gobierno español del peligro colateral y no intencionado que pueden sufrir algunas ciudades fronterizas españolas con Francia, a consecuencia del uso de las nuevas armas. En aquellas fechas los puertos franceses de Burdeos, Niza, Tolon y Marsella, proximos todos ellos a España, estaban siendo usados masivamente por la flota angloamericana, y por tanto se convertían en objetivos prioritarios de un posible bombardeo atomico aleman.
Pero Stalin calla, y no comunica el ataque nuclear sufrido en Tunguska a sus aliados angloamericanos. Sus tropas se encuentran ya muy cerca de Berlin, y sabe que incluso un ataque generalizado aleman contra Rusia tendra poco efecto sobre la maquinaria belica sovietica: sus principales ciudades estan ya destruidas, ha perdido veinte millones de rusos a manos alemanas y su industria esta dispersa por las inmensidades de siberia. No hay posibilidad de un ataque concentrado contra los rusos para ese tipo de armas, a no ser que la alemania nazi disponga de cientos de bombas como la de Tunguska.
A los pocos dias Stalin comprueba que no hay ataque atomico masivo aleman, y ordena al ejercito rojo el asalto definitivo a la capital del Reich.

19. Hitler no usa la bomba
Tras el fracaso de las posibles negociaciones con Stalin, y ante la inexistencia de una respuesta angloamericana, Hitler se encuentra en la peor de las situaciones posibles. Su ejercito se bate en retirada en el oeste, retrocede sangrientamente en el este y su sistema industrial, que permanece intacto en un 80% en el subsuelo aleman, se ahoga por la falta de suministros.
Un bombardeo de aviso como el de Tunguska contra los americanos era extremadamente dificil para los nazis: Toda la Europa ocupada por los aliados, asi como toda la costa este americana, unica zona al alcance de un bombardeo alemán, estaba densamente poblada y podría entenderse el bombardeo como un ataque directo contra la población. Un impacto en el atlantico podría provocar efectos imprevisibles , quiza un maremoto, al no haber sido probada la bomba en el mar. Adicionalmente podía ser mal interpretado como un error técnico alemán o deberse a un fenomeno natural, como la caída de un meteorito. Una demostración en el desierto del norte de africa o en Groenlandia podria dar una imagen equivocada de la potencia destructiva de la bomba, como ocurriera en el test de Trinity de Alamogordo: la explosion tan solo destruyó la torre que sostenia la bomba y vitrificó una delgada capa del suelo, dando lugar a un nuevo mineral, la trinitina.
Solo le quedaba a Hitler la posibilidad de un ataque directo contra Nueva York u otra gran ciudad de la costa este americana, para forzar una posible paz con occidente, aun cuando las V-2 que ya se lanzaban sobre Londres no conseguian obligar a los ingleses a una negociación.
Hitler se muestra inseguro: la muerte repentina de quiza millones de personas a consecuencia de un ataque nuclear puede provocar una respuesta indeseada por parte americana. Ante la aplastante superioridad aerea aliada, Hitler teme que los aliados se atrevan por fin a un bombardeo masivo con gases o con armas bacteriologicas, mucho mas letal que los bombardeos convencionales que ya sufrian los alemanes en toda su intensidad.
Ademas persiste el temor fundado de que los americanos dispongan ya de un arma atomica de caracteristicas similares, que no haya sido usada aún, por las mismas razones que no se usaban los agentes quimicos o bacteriologicos.
Los norteamericanos no tendrian tantas consideraciones a la hora del bombardeo atomico de ciudades japonesas. Sabian, gracias a la captura del submarino U-234, que los japoneses no disponian ni de bombas atomicas, ni de cohetes, ni de capacidad para una posible respuesta de represalia contra los Estados Unidos, asi que podian efectuar el ataque nuclear con total impunidad.
Sin embargo ese miedo a la represalia asegurada si funcionó durante los cincuenta años de guerra fria posteriores, en los que se evitó el uso de armamento atomico gracias a la estrategia mutua de "disuasion nuclear".
Si alemania hubiera conseguido terminar la produccion de los misiles intercontinentales A-9/A-10 o los bombarderos a reaccion de largo alcance Horten XVIII o Junkers E-555, o el bombardero antipodal Sänger, Hitler hubiera podido atacar con alguna garantía a los aliados desde sus bases subterraneas en Turingia, mientras él permanecia atrincherado en su reducto alpino, hasta forzar la deseada tregua.
Tambien hubiera necesitado el dictador aleman que la produccion en serie de bombas atomicas fuera al menos diez veces superior a lo conseguido hasta entonces, apenas dos bombas operativas de plutonio y una de uranio, y material fisionable para otras veinte bombas mas...
El 20 de Marzo cae definitivamente Budapest, y con Hungría caen tambien las gigantescas factorias Manfred-Weiss, pertenecientes al emporio economico de las SS y lugar donde se ensamblaban las bombas atomicas alemanas. Era tal la importancia de dicha factoria que las cinco mejores divisiones de las SS, mas de 70.000 hombres, fueron desplazados desde el sur de Alemania y desde Austria, provocando un rapido avance enemigo en ambos frentes. A pesar de que solo 1.000 hombres de las Waffen sobrevivieron a la terrible lucha en defensa de la Manfred-Weiss, Hitler, en un arrebato de ira, ordena que los soldados de las SS se arranquen las bandas-insignia de los brazos con el nombre del Führer, y desautoriza de su poder a Heinrich Himmler. A partir de entonces, sera tambien el General Kammler el jefe "de facto" de las Waffen SS.
El 3 de Abril los americanos y los rusos invaden Turingia ocupando las bases y fabricas secretas alemanas. Hitler se reune urgentemente con Kammler y le hace llegar nuevas ordenes: Aún quedaba una posibilidad de un ataque aereo contra una ciudad americana desde la base de Kristiansend, en Noruega, enviando un bombardero de largo alcance He177 a recoger un ingenio nuclear llevado alli por el submarino U-234.
A raiz de la muerte de Roosvelt, Hitler volverá a creer en un cambio radical de la situacion, esperando como Federico el Grande el milagro de un posible enfrentamiento inminente entre los aliados occidentales y sus cada vez menos fiables compañeros de armas sovieticos. El enfrentamiento deseado por Hitler solo llegaria tras la melodramatica muerte del Führer, y se extendería durante los 50 años siguientes, los años de la "guerra fría".
El dia 15 de Abril, tras comprobar que el nuevo presidente americano Truman continuará las hostilidades, y temiendo una brutal represalia angloamericana, Hitler decide no ejecutar el ataque aereo contra Nueva York desde Kristiansend. Ese mismo dia el submarino U-234 parte del puerto noruego con rumbo a Japón, pero su destino final es incierto, dado el desarrollo que estaban tomando los acontecimientos. La decision de Hitler de no emplear la bomba atomica provoca una desbandada general entre los altos mandos de las SS y de la Luftwaffe, partidarios ambos del uso del arma nuclear como unica alternativa para forzar un pacto a la desesperada con los aliados. Herman Goering anunciará su deseo de negociar con los americanos el dia 23 de Abril, lo que provocará su dentención por orden de Hitler. Al mismo tiempo Heinrich Himmler se pondrá en contacto con el Conde Bernardotte para negociar una rendición por separado, sin contar con el Führer.
Hitler centra sus ultimos recursos en un final "heroico" para su regimen, con la idea de marcar en la historia universal una resistencia épica sin precedentes, sacrificando hasta el ultimo hombre en la capital del Reich .
Pocos dias despues del suicidio de Hitler, el conde Schwerin Von krosigk, recien nombrado ministro de asuntos exteriores del efimero gobierno del almirante Doenitz, comunica a la agencia de noticias Reuter que "..Hitler no habia echado mano de la última arma terrible que el Reich tenía a su disposición..." El dia 10 de Mayo el Almirante Doenitz firma la rendición incondicional de Alemania. La guerra en Europa había terminado.
Aún le quedaba a Hitler, ya muerto, una ultima baza que jugar contra sus enemigos, en la lejana guerra del Pacifico. Siempre preocupado por sus complejas maquinaciones de estetica politica, el Führer prefirió pasar a la Historia sin quedar como el Padre del primer ataque atomico, dejando la responsabilidad de ese crimen final en manos de los japoneses. Poco imaginaba Hitler que el seis de Agosto de 1945 los norteamericanos, en nombre de la democracia y la libertad, se mancharían finalmente las manos con WuWa, la bomba nazi, provocando el asesinato instantaneo de 150.000 personas en un segundo. Un record de velocidad aún no igualado en la eliminación de seres humanos.

20. El submarino U-234
El dia 19 de Mayo de 1945 atraca en el puerto de Portsmouth, New Hampshire (USA), el enorme submarino alemán U-234 de la clase XB. Su llegada no es ningun secreto, y tanto la prensa local como nacional e internacional toman nota del evento. Nada mas llegar a puerto, soldados americanos con contadores geiger penetran en el submarino, impidiendo que ningun miembro de la tripulacion o mercancia alguna abandone el barco.
En poco tiempo se hace publico el valiosisimo cargamento que transporta el submarino rendido, consistente en 240 toneladas de diverso material de extrema importancia, entre los que cabe destacar dos aviones a reaccion Me 262 desmontados, miles de planos de cohetes y armas, fusibles infrarojos para bombas, y lo que es mas sorprendente, bidones con agua pesada (H2O2) y 560 kilos de uranio.
Segun consta en la documentacion incautada y disponible publicamente, el destino final del submarino era Japon. El submarino, tras recibir previamente su carga en el puerto de Kiel, partió desde el puerto noruego de Kristiansand el 15 de Abril de 1945 rumbo a Japón, bajo ordenes expresas del Jefe de la Gestapo, Heinrich Müller, y del propio Adolf Hitler.
Ademas de la tripulación, viajaban en el mismo navio expertos en infrarojos, cientificos y dos oficiales-ingenieros japoneses que se suicidarian poco antes de la rendicion del submarino aleman.
Desde 1945 la historia y las especulaciones acerca del submarino no han dejado de inspirar la imaginación de numerosos escritores y guionistas, e incluso en 1992 fue realizada una pelicula, coproducida por alemania, Japon y estados unidos y dirigida por el realizador Frank Beyer, titulada "El ultimo submarino", y basada integramente en las memorias escritas por el telegrafista del submarino, el oficial Wolfgang Hirschsfeld.

21.Quinientos sesenta kilos de uranio 235: El caso Carter Hydrick.
En el año 1998 un ejecutivo de la multinacional informatica Compaq, llamado Carter Hydrick, decide hacer publico un interesante libro que al parecer aún seguía escribiendo entonces, titulado "Critical Mass", y lo publica parcialmente en internet en un dominio de su propiedad, con la direccion
Carter Hydrick no es un historiador profesional, pero desde siempre estuvo intrigado con la historia del submarino U234. Tras varios años investigando por su cuenta y 20.000 dolares gastados, Carter Hydrick encuentra numerosa documentacion, aparentemente intrascendente, desclasificada por el gobierno de los estados unidos, relativa al asunto del misterioso submarino alemán.
En dicha documentacion encuentra referencias a que el uranio transportado por los nazis no era el practicamente inofensivo oxido de uranio 238, tal y como rezaban los comunicados oficiales americanos sobre el caso del submarino atrapado, sino que se trataba de 560 kilos puros del isotopo fisionable U235, suficientes para construir de forma inmediata 10 bombas atómicas identicas a la lanzada sobre Hiroshima.
El uranio se encontraba celosamente envasado en 70 tubos cilindricos con el interior de los mismos chapado en oro, con objeto de evitar la oxidacion de un material tan valioso como el U235.
Pero el fabuloso libro de Carter Hydrick nunca salió de imprenta. Su pagina web no es accesible desde el 25 de noviembre de 1999, y aunque parece seguir ejerciendo su cargo ejecutivo en una filial de Compaq en Huston, Texas, cualquier rastro de sus investigaciones y apariciones publicas ha desaparecido por completo.Tan solo Carter Hydrick es mencionado en una nota de prensa del diario local de Lake Tahoe, con fecha 23 de mayo del 2000, relativa a los actos funerales en memoria de John Gabriel Hydrick, hermano de Carter. Tambien figura en dicha nota de prensa una breve biografia del fallecido: un eficaz agente que trabajó durante años procesando información secreta al servicio de la CIA, el FBI y la NSA. Al parecer Carter Hydrick, en sus investigaciones, pudo tener acceso a documentación de primera mano.

22. Proyecto Manhattan, mayo de 1945: No hay bomba.
El 3 de Marzo de 1945 el senador James F. Byrnes escribio un memorandum dirigido al presidente de los estados unidos en en el que le detallaba los resultados del proyecto Manhattan, asi como el abusivo coste de dos billones de dolares gastados en el proyecto.Ademas solicitaba la suspension de las investigaciones, dado el rumbo de la guerra y del exito de los bombardeos convencionales.En mayo la desesperacion en el proyecto Manhattan es total: hace tiempo que se ha renunciado a la construccion de una bomba operativa de uranio 235, y aunque se ha producido cantidad suficiente de plutonio 239 -unos 15 kilogramos- no se ha encontrado aún el metodo de hacer implotar la bomba de plutonio.
Como resultado en Junio de 1945 son muchos los politicos americanos que claman por una finalización inmediata de los gastos disparatados de la investigación atomica, ya que estimaban que la guerra estaba practicamente ganada y que los brutales bombardeos de los B-29 contra Japón eran presión suficiente para terminar la guerra.
Pero al parecer la bomba atomica se habia convertido tambien en un "arma diplomatica" para el presidente Truman: su uso impune forzaría una rendicíon instantanea del Japón y sería un serio aviso contra el peligroso expansionismo soviético.

23. Los fusibles infra-rojos de Von Ardenne y la bomba de plutonio
Cuando el submarino U-234 se rinde en el puerto de Portsmouth, un supuesto comandante del ejercito americano llamado Alvarez habla con la tripulacion alemana del navio, y posteriormente se hace acompañar por el oficial Schlike, al parecer un experto en sistemas de detonacion por infrarojos que tambien viajaba en el enorme submarino. Ademas el "comandante" Alvarez se lleva del buque unos 1200 fusibles de infrarojos inventados por el cientifico aleman Von Ardenne, listos para ser usados.
El destino de ambos, Alvarez y Schlike, es el laboratorio de Los Alamos en Nuevo Mexico, donde se desarrolla el grueso de los trabajos del ultra secreto proyecto Manhattan. El equipo de investigadores de Los Alamos tiene un serio problema: aparentemente han conseguido fabricar suficiente plutonio para terminar una bomba atomica, pero no consiguen hacerla explotar.
Para ello necesitan que una pequeña esfera formada por 32 porciones de explosivo juntadas de una forma similar a un balon de futbol exploten simultaneamente en una fraccion de segundo. Dicha explosion provocaria la implosion de una bola de plutonio, forzandola a alcanzar la densidad y masa critica necesarias para provocar la deflagración atomica. Durante mucho tiempo han estado ensayando metodos electronicos de detonacion, pero leves diferencias de velocidad en la activacion de los fusibles de detonacion hacen que los explosivos no exploten simultaneamente, y por tanto la implosion del plutonio no tiene lugar.
El oficial aleman capturado Schlike les da la solución: usando los fusibles infra-rojos inventados por el Baron Von Ardenne para el regimen nazi, se consigue que los 64 fusibles que envuelven a los 32 segmentos de explosivo convencional detonen a la velocidad de la luz, simultaneamente y provocando la implosion necesaria del plutonio. Es el propio Schlike quien instala los fusibles de la bomba de la prueba de Trinity, que se hace estallar el 16 de Julio de 1945 en el desierto de Nuevo Mexico. Es, segun la version oficial de los vencedores, la primera explosion nuclear de la historia.
Cuando el artefacto explota a la primera, todos se sorprenden de la potencia de la deflagracion. Todos menos Schlinke. Tras la guerra el oficial aleman seguiria trabajando en el proyecto nuclear americano, beneficiado por el programa Paperclip de reclutamiento masivo de cientificos e ingenieros nazis.
Y el comandante Alvarez? No existió nunca tal comandante. El responsable del sistema de detonacion del plutonio del proyecto Manhattan, el Dr. Alvarez, se habia disfrazado de militar americano con objeto de ganarse mas facilmente la confianza de los militares nazis. Mas tarde Alvarez pasaría a la historia como el hombre que había resuelto el problema de la implosión del plutonio en el ultimo minuto. Tambien se haría famoso por su teoria de la desaparicion de los dinosaurios a consecuencia del impacto de un meteorito, y ganaria finalmente el nobel de fisica por sus descubrimientos en el campo de la tecnología de infra-rojos.

24. 60 kilos de U235 sobre Japon.
El 16 de Julio los cientificos del proyecto Manhattan hacen explotar su primera bomba en Alamogordo, una bomba de plutonio. No hubo mas pruebas, la bomba de plutonio funcionaba.
Sin embargo, lo que cayo sobre Hiroshima el 6 de agosto de 1945 no fue una segunda bomba de plutonio. Era una bomba conteniendo 60 kilos de uranio 235. Una bomba que jamas habia sido probada y de la que se desconocian los efectos de su explosion. Mas tarde, ante las sospechas que provocó la falta de pruebas previas realizadas con la bomba de uranio, los responsables del proyecto Manhattan argumentaron que se trataba de una bomba mucho mas simple que la de plutonio, que al igual que en un fusil se activaba disparando una carga subcritica de uranio sobre otra masa subcritica. Afirmaban que estaban tan seguros de la explosión que estimaban que no era necesaria una prueba previa. Se desconocia si la bomba de 60 kilos de uranio era mas potente que la bomba de 15 kilos de plutonio probada el 16 de Julio. No se sabía tampoco si podia provocar la temida reacción en cadena atmosferica, extendiendo su efecto a todo el planeta.
A pesar de todas estas importantisimas cuestiones la bomba es dejada caer sobre la ciudad japonesa antes que la ya probada de plutonio. Existia otro grave riesgo: para provocar el maximo daño con la explosion, el mecanismo de disparo de la bomba debía detonar a unos 600 metros del suelo, lo que se conoce como "ground zero". Para ello la bomba llevaba un delicado sistema de presion atmosferica controlado por un circuito electronico muy sensible.
La bomba debia ser montada y armada en vuelo, pocos minutos antes de ser lanzada, con objeto de que la radiacion emitida por el hiper-activo uranio 235 no dañara los circuitos de disparo y provocara el ingenio no explotase en el momento adecuado, o lo que es aún peor, que diera lugar a una explosion precipitada en vuelo. A eso hay que añadir el riesgo estadistico: casi un diez por ciento de las bombas convencionales lanzadas durante la segunda guerra mundial no explotaron. Ademas la bomba llevaba un pequeño paracaidas que frenaba su descenso, con objeto de evitar que una variación de presion por la velocidad de caida la hiciera explotar en una cota inadecuada. Eso significaba también que la bomba, de no explotar, caeria intacta en el bando japones.
El hecho de que la bomba de uranio pudiera caer sin explotar en manos enemigas podria acarrear consecuencias gravisimas e imprevisibles: los japoneses tendrían a su disposicion 60 kilos de uranio 235 puro, que podrian usar rapidamente en un ataque de respuesta contra los estados unidos. El grado de avance del programa nuclear japones estaba lo suficientemente desarrollado como para entender la mecanica de la bomba de Hiroshima. De hecho, al finalizar la guerra fueron incautados a los japoneses dos ciclotrones y al menos cinco reactores nucleares en construccion en Japon y Corea, aunque el estado de desarrollo de dichos reactores es todavia un misterio no desclasificado por el gobierno de los estados unidos. Tambien se requisaron a los japoneses varios cazas y cohetes operativos identicos a los usados por los alemanes.
Es facil encontrar documentacion sobre el proyecto de la bomba de plutonio. Cada una de las fases de su desarrollo esta suficientemente explicada en miles de articulos y declaraciones efectuadas por los artifices del proyecto Manhattan. Sin embargo, es mucho mas dificil encontrar documentación desclasificada de la bomba de uranio lanzada sobre Hiroshima.
Dicha bomba y su uso sigue provocando entre historiadores y expertos agrias discusiones acerca de su verdadera naturaleza. Pero la contestacion definitiva a todas las cuestiones suscitadas puede ser resuelta con una sencilla explicación: la bomba de uranio de Hiroshima ya había sido probada con anterioridad por los alemanes en un remoto bosque siberiano.

25. Oppenheimer, Churchill y el General Putt hablan
9 de agosto de 1945. Los japoneses se rinden, la guerra ha acabado y el estado de euforia general entre los aliados hace que se baje la guardia ante la prensa, desapareciendo temporalmente el severo secretismo practicado en el bando vencedor. Incluso los cientificos implicados en el proyecto Manhattan hacen declaraciones a la prensa, entre ellos uno de los principales responsables del mismo: Oppenheimer afirma en una inocente entrevista sobre los apuros y prisas que la bomba de plutonio había ocasionado a su equipo de trabajo. Al ser preguntado por la bomba de Hiroshima la respuesta rapida: era una bomba que lo alemanes ya habían probado, no había nada que investigar, solo usarla. Pero Oppenheimer no fue el unico en ser generoso con sus respuestas.
El dia veintiseis de agosto de 1945 aparecio en todos los diarios del mundo, incluido "The Times" y el "New york Times" una intrigante nota de prensa emitida simultaneamente por el gobierno ingles y por el ejercito norteamericano, en base a los resultados de la investigaciones efectuadas por el grupo CIOS de inteligencia aliada: el comunicado habla del avanzado estado de la investigacion nuclear alemana, de la importancia del material incautado a los nazis y d
rumors ERRORS OF 2.001 Almost any film never done has inconsistencias or defects of continuity. From the reappeared ring of Charlton Heston in Horseradish tree Hur, to famous the sixth replicante of Blade Runner (the mystery of which still it is about to to solve) the "great errors" as as much small are an inevitable part of any complex cinematographic accomplishment. But there is a sport between the fans to serious science-fiction films that consist of bucar the "scientific errors" of those films; in all of them there are "errors" that can be pardoned, but a producer who is conceited to present/display his works like "a realistic" vision of a possible future, like 2001: an odyssey of the space, must be prepared for a meticulous analysis of their work. And it is that the film considers like one more a possibility higher than the simple entertainment. It is possible to be assumed that Stanley Kubrick had everything in its mind when, along with Arthur C. Clarke, was decided to make the "better film of science-fiction". 2001, as it was, are much more that a science-fiction film. It is a Metaphysical mental opera, a meditation about the origin of the human race; the dawn of the conscience without the human intervention. Kubrick took care of much of the autenticista aspect of science and the technology. That it failed? Stays on the verge of knowing it. Everything what raises... Although Kubrick did not use the airplane of training without gravity of the American Aerial Force, as Rum Howard did for the film Apolo 13, and in spite of the fact that the ship of space passengers greater when rolled 2001 was the Gemini, and nobody had never seen the way in that people would behave in an atmosphere pressurized without gravity, Kubrick tries in pelicula to deliver an attack to portray that atmosphere seriously. Nevertheless, some things are totally inconsecuentes, as it is possible to be seen in diverse scenes: I - During I journey of Floyd towards the Moon, its liquid space food ("Seabrook Farms Liquipack") low by the pajita when the doctor lets aspire, one of the great errors but of pelicula, to less than one assumes that the food container, that includes "lenguado liquid";), it was with negative pressure in its container. II - In spite of the plane introductorio of the footwear of Velcro like a pride in the scenes of lunar transit, the behavior of people who work under the conditionses of weightlessness is quite erratic. One simply could not walk of course of the way that the actors and the extras do it under conditionses of weightlessness, with shoes or not (, many peliculas of ci-fi ignore this point completely; for example, Star Trek, the wars of the Galaxies, peliculas of the saga of Alien, etc, in which the "artificial gravity" is created by some not specified and completely no-cientificos means). III - In the Discovery, Bowman and Poole are inclined on the console of the computer in the room of capsulas, and are other scenes in which Dave and Frank seem to forget that they assume in weightlessness, except in camara centrifuges. And, when Bowman is going to disconnect HAL, it must promote stairs from the room of capsulas, resting his weight on each step, rather that simply to push itself itself upwards. IV - Impressive - and famous and the on the other hand really spectacular, on all for the eyes of end of 60' - scene which the stewardess walks by the chain dump to enter the driver's cab would have been unnecessary; she could simply have made a flight in conditionses of weightlessness. Perhaps the Velcro to help to walk could be necessary for a commercial passenger that at a first moment it felt disoriented, but has little sense in a vehicle like the Discovery flown by professional astronauts. In fact the use of the shoes of Velcro debio to include itself to avoid to have to film scenes with hung cable actors, as it happens in other scenes of pelicula, in concrete in which they are developed in the deep space. It is, nevertheless, very obvious that it has been the space race the one that has turned to those scenes an offense for the fisica. V - This also is applied to the scenes under conditions of limited gravity: when the landing of the Aries ship takes place on the Moon, the dust that so clearly appears illuminated creating a phantasmagoric effect, not habria remained in that situation of neblinez by a fundamental reason: in the Moon there is no atmosfera on which it had been able to wave the dust. As they demonstrated the landings of the Apolo ships, the dust but jumped well towards the sides, before to undulate upwards. Also, the alive movements of the photographer (as well as those of other Clavius inhabitants), of the moon base, habrian it taken to crash against the walls or the ceiling in an atmosphere of 1/6 of gravity. I SAW - Two moments of pelicula turn out lucky to avoid the error: in the ship of I journey towards the Tycho crater, the scene is cut before we pruned to see as cafe in the atmosphere under gravity would be spilled. The reduction of the incline of the crater is also lucky, because when being a dramatica scene, almost surely that sensation impidio to return to commit an error with the gravity. VII - And although the scenes in the centrifugal machine of the Discovery estan very well done (thanks for supposed to the complex revolving machinery that Kubrick control to construct for it), in the scene to Space station Five is quite obvious that the actors in these scenes descend an incline when they walk ' around ' of the wheel of the station from the near zones towards the bottom. Nevertheless, the centrifugal machine of the Discovery in itself is a discussion object: Clarke and the advisor of Ordway science has admitted that, as impressive as it seems, the centrifugal machine would often need to be greater or the Coriolis effect in the inner oido one would have caused uncontrollable nauseas in the members of crew. There are also many questions with respect to the effect of torque of rotation on objects within a centrifugal machine rotating quickly. According to the notes of Ordway, the final decision was to cause that the centrifugal machine generated a gravity but or less lunar, of 1/6 of G. Of course, the races of Poole in the ship had been impossible to make at that speed. Lux in Tenebris Whereas the errors in the gravity can have come from a combination of deficiency of realistic information and physical reserve, serious errors in the behavior of the light in the deep space were committed, in an emptiness. The problem is that far from any planetary body to reflect it, or the atmosphere to smooth it, the light that strikes an object will create shades that are absolutely black. If you are on the side of a spaceship far from the sun, the dark would be as complete as the night without darker moon (perhaps darker, really). The only portions of the ship that would be visible would be those in which really it struck the sun; the other zones would not be but that a negrura against the star bottom. This makes the running difficult. In the first place, he is very hard to film a model that represents this fact exactly. And although something can be duplicated is, speaking, visually very amazing since they hit the things to us that we do not see as usually we see them in our surroundings. It is to appreciate then that the Discovery (and the capsules) are illuminated (with both types of light, smooth and direct) from angles that could not possibly have seen in the reality. It is to emphasize, in addition, that although it is of much smaller quality, with special but advanced effects and an enormous physical failure that now I will narrate, in pelicula 2.010: odyssey two, Peter Hyams, as good director of photography, takes advantage of which already we have seen ships in the space to offer to us flat of the very real ships in this sense, with certainly real lights and negruras. He is to be strange, nevertheless, that makes stop so suddenly to the Discovery. The origin of the force is not known that makes him stop in its rotation and, ademas, this fisicamente proven that if a body as that stopped of that way, the internal heat so would be elevated that little quedaria of her hardly seconds despues. The disguises and the clothes In the delivery of the Oscars, 2001 please lost the prize of maquillaje in the Planet of the Simios. Deeply confused Arthur C. Clarke it asked very displeased if the voters of the Academy thought that "Moonwatcher" and company were simios true. Although it can sound improbable, is a fact that many sensible people, members of the AMPAS (if there are such), thought that true simios were used in the sequence of the Dawn of the Man. But they were not it, of course; the men-simios were interpreted by a company of dancers, not only by the fact that they podian to be trained but facilmente to imitate the paleo-human movements, but that because its fisica constitution the haria to put within the suits without seeming people within suits of simio. In spite of knowing this, the scene is impressive to see, and totally convincing no matter how hard millon of times is seen. The simios along with fear and feel fascination by the Monolith (that is, the music of Ligetí, the sequence not-verbal but great jamas filmed), its tragicomic battle on the water, and the joyful and crazy discovery of the bone like weapon, is the triumph of a director. Rumors that exist in one of the ankles of one of the simios, a rack in a plane can be appreciated, and is to notice with impudence that around the eyes, most expensive does not fit well, favoring the expression of the actors, who give to content and character to the scene. Those mentioned racks above are not the only error with respect to clothes; when Bowman enters the Center of Logic of HAL, its left glove is separated of the suit, showing its wrist. And, in the final sequence of pelicula, Dave it begins to walk by habitacion, going towards a WALL, and in the following plane we see it crossing the THRESHOLD of a door; in that same plane, on the bed, the brown dressing gown can be appreciated that but late takes putting, when this eating. The space helmets also provide a little while with interest. One has inquired into which when the reduction takes place towards the monolith in the Tycho crater, it is possible to be seen cameraman reflected in the viewfinder of the helmet of Floyd. As it wants that it is a scene of ' camara in flowed, about being certain one would be the own Kubrick, since the one is he himself that makes that type of shootings. The amazing increasing and declining ships... In which it concerns the ships, the Discovery practically does not keep its proportions and measures at any moment from pelicula. Taking like reference the capsules for EVA, the front sphere of the Discovery it does not seem to have but of ten meters of diametro. Whereas this measurement also adapts to the centrifugal machine, the production drawings indicate that the front sphere would have to accommodate the room of HAL memory, the front center of commando, the storage corridor, and the sluice, and is extremely dificil to do that. Recuerdese also that the Discovery is a spaceship of nuclear energy, with I modulate of esferico in its front part, separated control by a long thorn of the atomico motor, whose fuel, I hydrogenate I eliminate, is stored in the tanks on the intermediate thorn. Clarke and Ordway have written that such plant to be able would need gigantic wings like - "cooling vanes" - dissipating the heat of the nuclear reactor. In several designs of production one is the Discovery with those wings, but Kubrick decidio not to use them, because the wings would have suggested some type of aerodynamic function. The thin aspect of the spaceship gave an impression of being but a pure vehicle of space, and has the added benefit to look itself like a skeleton, the bones of some prehistoric creature... Also, the lunar ferry Aries presents/displays the control room of the crew in the top of the sphere in a perpendicular relation with respect to the passenger salon, that touches sides of the sphere; although the stewardess makes a turn of 180 degrees, returns to enter the crew cabin after leaving the central elevator that is oriented single to 90 degrees. The capsules. When Bowman enters the emergency sluice, the expulsion assumes done using - "explosive bolts". In fact we see a great cloud of smoke and Bowman arises from the smoke in the sluice, whereas the door simply disappears, and that in the reality would have preceded to Bowman in the sluice. One vision photogram to photogram reveals that the smoke appears when the door already has been retirement, and then it appears Bowman "falling", since the scene I film myself in vertical; a jump takes place in which the door for "not hindering" disappears. Also, Dave arises from the Discovery, in the final part of the film, in capsula of the center, but in fact the unica capsula that is would be the right (watching the Discovery front); capsula of the center fué the one that I use and I kill Frank Poole, capsula left was the one that Dave used for the emergency maneuver in the sluice. The cameras (and Projectors) In the conversation of Floyd with her daughter, the girl moves and camara moves, although with extreme care, to follow its movements; something really peculiar for supposed camara fixes of video-I telephone. The actress is, of course, the daughter of Kubrick Vivian, and we can be conceited that Kubrick filmed the scene he himself. Shame, shame! ; (. There are also several views of Poole that is seeing Bowman during the preparation and first space stroll. In some of those takings, the location of the camera is inconsecuente with the structure of the spaceship - - in other words is no place on the Discovery where to place a camera that shows Poole the image of Bowman. It is possible to be conjectured that camaras was located on capsula, but even asi this inconsistentemente portrayed, and many of the used planes are simply copies of the principle photography. Also, the necessary positioning of cameras during some of the planes of effects creates interesting juxtapositions. The scenes of Bowman and Poole in the space and of Bowman in the Center of Logic of HAL were made suspending to the actors of cables, and filming from ahead. During the first EVA of Bowman, we can see the shade of cables next to its feet against capsula white, simply after he leaves. And when Bowman floats in the room of HAL memory, its knapsack hangs downwards by the effect of the gravity. Not only the cameras, but that also the projectors can create problems. When we see retrograbacion of reading of the driver's cab in the Orion, it shows the rotation with respect to the station. When we see the Orion and the Station aligned from within of the shuttle, the reading still shows the same relative movement. The readings throughout the film give an impressive feeling of reality. They were done with animations by hand projected by the back from curls of pelicula of 16mm. If one pays attention with attention will see the same repeated readings once in a while. These the Control Panel of HAL is specially visible in planes showing. Also, the same type of retro-projected readings appears in the cabin of capsula of Bowman when it recovers the body of Poole. So single with projection on the face one imagines since it had been possible to film, although this effect increases the intensity dramatica of the scene, on a par that transmits a union sensation maquina-man which the actors with their personages of cold astronauts portray perfectly. The size of the Universe (of the Solar System)... In the opening planes, the sun raises on the Earth, that simultaneously raises on the moon: The scene is dramatic, but the comparative sizes of the moon, the Earth and the sun are the eror. In the Earth reality it seems very small from the distance of the moon - - on 4 times greater than the moon in our own sky. In fact, throughout the film, the relative sizes of the Earth, moon, sun, Jupiter planet and its moons are not uniform, and the phases of diverse planets and the moons are inexact from the positions in which they were filmed. And in the sequence first of the monolith, the scene begins to the dawn with the men-simio who reunen themselves around to his. When they approach the monolith, minutes despues, we see the sun directly above, like a mediodia. The magical alignment of the Sun, Moon and Earth, and soon the Sun, Jupiter and its moons, is not scientifically precise, but it was designed to give what Kubrick called - "a magical feeling" - to these scenes. And before Dave crosses the door of stars, we see Jupiter the aligned moons of a form that would be astronomicamente impossible. This became like part of "magica" the alignment that we have described above. When Dave is in - "cosmic habitacion of hotel" - at the end of the film, we heard its breath, but current it of oxygen of his suit, as it were heard during the EVÁs, and it is not possible to be adduced that that atmosfera is breathable, since it assumes that when wears the suit, this this sealed. It is even necessary to also ask itself for the destiny of capsula, that disappears like by magic art, like its suit. But dice the total sense of this scene, extending since for time and space, we would not perhaps have to be so literal... Obtaining realism... These are all the defects or errors that have been detected and informed in 2001; new contributions if it is that they exist, serian to be thankful. Perhaps and, anyway, now already it left of gustarte 2,001 because it does not know to handle the gravity?