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ENCYCLOPEDIA

history
 
The Era Paleozoica, that lasted 570 ago to 246 million years, the life of our planet increased incredibly. Many animals developed to shell or skeleton. At the beginning of the Paleozoico, all the alive beings were aquatic: one neither single one lived in mainland, nor followed the plants. Towards end of the Paleozoico, the life had advanced so much, that several beings had managed to conquer the firm Earth. This was is made up of the following periods: Cámbrico, of 570 to 505 million years; Ordovicio, from 504 to 438; Silúrico, from 437 to 408; Devónico, from 407 to 362; Carboniferous, from 361 to 290; and Pérmico, from 289 to 246. If you did not have skeleton, you would be a soft, incapable mass of moverte. Without shell, a crab also would be a soft pulp that would not take in devouring other animals. To the skeleton or the shell the muscles can be fixed, that make the movement possible. The shell also protects the soft body, that therefore moves without running so many risks. The matter lasts that it composes the shells and the skeletons also provided to the animals a substance able to scrape or to cut the food. Thus, thanks to these hard parts, the animals could leave the bottom of the sea and find better conditions of life and more food. During first half of the Paleozoico more complicated forms of life evolved. The fish were the first animals that developed a spine, and oldest they lived more ago than 400 million years, in the Ordovicio period. In the middle of the Paleozoico, the fish jammed the seas, and some even tried to colonize the firm Earth. During this it was, some moluscos grew and developed a greater brain and more effective their tentacles catched artrópodos extending. These new moluscos swam using a type of jet propulsion: expelling water to pressure towards ahead, they were impelled backwards. When they advanced by the seas, these moluscos looked for artrópodos for comérselos. Towards the Devónico period, the fish evolved. First they did not have jaws. Later gigantic fish evolved and, later, the fish of lobuladas fins developed lungs that gave origin to the amphibians.
The CÁRBONÍFERO the Carboniferous period must their name to the coal. The one that we consumed today, initiated its life as plants until make about 300 million years, in the Carboniferous period. When the dead trees and other vegetables fell in marshes, they were left mud places setting. With time, the vegetal rest were dried and formed what we called crowd. Buried under layers of earth and rock to great depth, the crowd was compressed and it was warmed up until, finally, it became coal. For that reason, often it is necessary to extract the coal to thousands of meters of depth. Sometimes also for that reason, the miners find of trunks of tree and plants fossil. The Carboniferous period passed from 361 to 290 million years. Imagínate sunk until the water knees gloomy, with the feet in the mud. Whenever you try to remove a foot from the cold mud, you cause a spurt of bubbles, and perceive the stench of the plants in decomposition. To your around there is a dense bed of which they seem Christmas trees of greenish yellow color. The really strange thing is silence here. A slight water movement can be oir to certain distance. The glasses of those strange plants you rock yourself smoothly to the wind, but nothing else. One does not hear the noise of any animal, nor the song of the birds. Suddenly, he appears in the shade something that flies. Also you hear a fort "brrrrrr", the fast fluttering of long sparkling wings. One libélula descends to great speed and disappears between the stems of the plants. They find you in muddy waters of a delta of Carboniferous. A delta is a zone of earth in fan form that is entered in the sea. Very fine earth or the slime dragged by the rivers until the sea is composed by. When the waters of the river arrive at the sea, they go more slowly, and the slime that transports accumulates in its opening. One of most famous is the delta of the Nile, in Egypt. This earth is very good for agriculture, but the deltas undergo frequent floods. In Carboniferous the dinosaurios, the mammals and the birds not yet exist. The plants that surround to you are gigantic equisetos, the old relatives of the small gleaned plants over which you trip over the today drains. In this period many deltas formed, specially in northern Europe and America. The vast mountain ranges that had formed during the Devónico period began to be worn away by the action of the wind and rain. The rocks were crushed until transforming itself into a fine sand called the slime, that was accumulated when the water that transported them arrived at the sea. This humid and marshy earth was in dense forests. The Carboniferous period is also known like the Era of the Amphibians. The conditions were ideal for them. There was much water where to put its eggs. These the tadpoles left, that were developed in the water and later they crawled in mainland, where had much food. There was milpiés greater than you. Other smaller animals also lived in the ground of the forest. Small animals similar to lizards pursued using their language to savor their surroundings. They were the first reptiles. The Carboniferous period contemplated the evolution of the first reptiles, ancestors as much of the dinosaurios as of the mammals. The trees of the period did not look themselves like the present ones. In fact, they were gigantic versions of some plants that today we called equisetos and lycopodiums. The branches and the leaves as the Lepidodendron and the Sigillaria formed a ceiling on the forest, sinking the ground in the dark. Near the ground there was a dense maze of ferns that grew in the humid earth. When the plants and the trees died, they were sunk in the mud, and gradually they turned crowd. This one is made up of layers of disturbed vegetation squashed. When the own crowd remained squashed by new layers of mud and sand, it became coal. The foot of the giant equisetos little covered deep waters with Carboniferous. The high land would be covered by different plants. It was a very primitive type of conifer become related with the present firs.
IT WAS MESOZOICA the dinosaurios have lived during three periods: the Triásico, Jurásico and Cretácico. They arose in the middle of the Triásico and they were extinguished definitively at the end of the Cretácico. In these three periods many classes lived on dinosaurios, altogether 33. These periods formed an era, the Era Mesozoica. During the three periods the climate was warmer and humid than in our days. One did not arrive at ends of heat and cold, nor was great differences between the summer and the winter. Zones of the plant did not exist either covered with ice and snow, like in the present polar regions. We are going to see the three periods. dividio in 3 was seras ERA MESOZOICA sud: Triásico | Jurásico | Cretácico The TRIÁSICO the meaning of Triásico is by tri- that means three, that is by the three rock layers which they were deposited during the period in the Earth. The Triásico period, that lasted 245 ago to 208 million years, was first of the three periods in which the dinosaurios lived. It was divided in two subperiods: inferior and the superior one. The inferior Triásico lasted 245 ago to 232 million years, and the superior Triásico from 231, more or less when they appeared the dinosaurios, to 208 million. At the beginning of the Triásico, new animals filled that empty world, after the impact of the massive extinction of the end of the Pérmico. In the borders of the water the first frogs jumped, and the turtles swam in lakes and rivers. The world of the Triásico included/understood an only supercontinent Pangea call, and the dinosaurios and the other animals were able to cross any part of the world on mainland. The climate was warm and humid. Next to the rivers and lakes they began to grow several types of plants, like the ferns, that extended next to the pools. The climate was much more dry in the interior, in which there were great desert extensions, located in the warm tropical, ideals for the reptiles. As they were left so few species, the principle of the Triásico was a time of great changes. Some mamiferoides reptiles survived from the Pérmico to the Triásico. Without as much competition of other herbívoros and the great oceans that to cross, these made the rounds to their wide ones by Pangea. The group of these reptiles more developed, the cinodontos, gave origin, make about 215 million years, to the mammals. These were small animals similar to musarañas, that probably they hunted at night, catching tiny insects and other animals. The seas of the Triásico were very concurred. The swimming reptiles impelled themselves with the four legs and captured fish with his sharpened teeth. The ictiosaurios similar to dolphins, swam little in deep waters anywhere in the world in the Triásico. Other reptiles, like the rincosaurios, prospered between half-full and final of the period. But the group of more importance of reptiles was the one of the arcosaurios, that took the advantage. They included the tecodontos, crocodiles, dinosaurios and pterosaurios. The tecodontos, the most important reptiles of the Triásico, gave origin to the other arcosaurios. One of the first groups of dinosaurios was the one of the sauristiquios. Also they appeared at the end of the period the ornistiquios. They were small and agile herbívoros. One of the found oldest dinosaurios until now is the Eoraptor, that is included in a group aside from dinosaurios, the herrerasáuridos ones. The prosaurópodos gave origin to the saurópodos, and other carnivores as large as men hunted to the small animals. At the end of this period there was another massive extinction, smaller, although he definitively ended the mamiferoides reptiles, the tecodontos, the rincosaurios..., leaving therefore the prepared scene to the dinosaurios, that began their dominion of 165 million years in the planet. During this period they appeared the first dinosaurios. These did not have grass on which to run, neither apples that to eat, nor pink that to smell. The flowers that animate our fields today did not exist then. The first dinosaurios were surrounded by great amount of exuberantes green plants of other types. This favored to them because many of them were herbívoros and had an extreme appetite. As well, these herbívoros were devoured by carnivorous animals. This relation in the feeding is called nourishing or trófica chain. The Earth life began in the sea, and in him the first plants lived, microscopic seaweed. Between the first earthly plants found mosses and the hepáticas. They lived in the borders of the salt marshes makes 400 million years. Two hundred million years later the dinosaurios were fed on them. Mosses and the hepáticas follow between us. They only grow in humid places. They can be seen in the borders of the rivers and the marshy lakes, like in the Era of the Dinosaurios. The hepáticas do not have stems nor roots themselves, they live in humid places and they present/display a acintado or lobulado stem; some are different in tallitos and leaves. They present/display short filaments with capsules, very small deposits, in his end in charge to scatter esporas, the cells that will become new plants. Mosses have short tallitos with hojitas; these, to the being soft, cannot reach much height. Their rizoides, fine like hair, absorb water. Like the hepáticas, they only grow in humid places. They have not varied much since then. Before the Triásico period, the Earth was covered with the plants with which we have spoken before and giant ferns. During the Triásico, the climate, since already there are saying, became drier; reason why the plants had to find ways to reach underground deep waters. And to take more break, in search of the sun, they developed rigid and strong stems. The first plants with rigid stems and conductive beams were the equisetos and the lycopodiums. The equisetos have ring of fine leaves that narrow in the end. The lycopodiums are like great mosses with heavy rigid stems. Before the dinosaurios, these plants reached a gigantic size. The ferns appeared in the Devónico period, it makes more than 350 million years, and were much more common that in the Era of the Dinosaurios. The ferns had conductive beams for the water transport inside their rigid stems, and leaves as fingers. Today many species survive. In the beginning, the ferns lived under the shady canopy on the gigantic lycopodiums and equisetos. The first dinosaurios devoured the soft buds of their foliage with voracity. The ferns were made high much more until sometimes reaching the 30 meters of height. During the Triásico period, the lycopodiums and giant equisetos of the previous times progressively replaced many of, more humid. The ligneous trunk of the giant ferns, that was partly stem and partly root, straightened up rectum and without branches. The leaves extended from the superior part, forming a embroider parasol, like a palm. The geologic periods The measurement of the geologic time the history of the life Archaic Era Precámbrico Was Paleozoica Cambrico Ordivicio Silúrico Carboniferous Devónico Pérmico Was Mesozoica Triásico Jurásico Cretácico Was Cenozoic Tertiary She was Quaternary The JURÁSICO the name must to mountains Oath, the mountain range that divides France and Switzerland. One formed during this period. The Jurásico lasted from 207 to makes 145 million years. They were divided in three parts differentiated enough; Inferior Jurásico, the means and the superior one. The inferior one lasted from 207 to makes 186 million years. The means from 186 to 164 million years. The superior one from 164 to makes 145 million years. In inferior the Jurásico period, the world began to change. The continents began to separate, and the Earth changed; it rained more and the Earth was covered with verdor. This one was the true time of the reign of the dinosaurios. The forests of the early Jurásico were populated with a great variety of herbívoros dinosaurios. Many prosaurópodos, the first tireóforos lived, that are primitive armored and enough reptiles Ornitópodos. Between the carnivores the first terópodos carnosaurios and many celofísidos small dinosaurios lived like, celúridos... In average the Jurásico period the world-wide climate went smoothing. The vegetation also was made more exuberante due to the increase of rains. All then Earth was populated by a great variety with dinosaurios and other animals. Toads lizards and turtles shared the world of the dinosaurios in the rivers. The first true toads appeared in the middle of the Jurásico, whereas the turtles and the lizards had evolved long before. Until recently, the only thing which it was known the dinosaurios of the average Jurásico corresponded to dispersed findings made in England, France and India. However, some discoveries conducted in China in the last years have come to palliate this lagoon. Although Chinese she is very remote of the European deposits, the dinosaurios were enough similars, since there was a terrestrial continuity between the two regions, and the climate was warm in almost everybody. There were no frozen polar circles, nor existed mountainous chains, like the Alps, the Urales, the Himalayas and the Rocky ones. There were some species more than in the inferior Jurásico. The main saurópodos were the cetiosáuridos ones. They appeared the first tireóforos with plates. Also there were several small ornitópodos, like fabrosáuridos. Also they evolved plus megalosáuridos, great primitive carnivorous reptiles; and also there were small terópodos, mainly celúridos and ovirraptores. In the superior Jurásico, great part of our planet was covered with great forests. But part of which today it is Europe and North America remained flooded by little deep seas. The climate was in warm and humid general. The dinosaurios of this time include/understand from small and quick predators that fed themselves on reptiles, to gigantic herbívoros that got to weigh up to 110 tons. Other characteristic animals are the mammals with rat aspect, the fresh water turtles, the crocodiles and the pterosaurios as large as doves, of long tail and sharpened teeth to catch fish. Between the carnivorous dinosaurios they were some small carnivores, who every time were less common, first ornitomímidos, the first dromeosáuridos birds and first. The greater carnivores were the last ones megalosáuridos, who were most dangerous of the group. The herbívoros were varied races more, was small Ornitópodos advanced, of which they evolved first iguanodontes. The estegosáuridos ones, reptiles with plates, became more common and of this same infraorder, the tireóforos, appeared the nodosáuridos ones. Of the saurópodos they evolved until becoming the greater animals than they have existed, but the greater one lived at the beginning of the following period. A nourished flock of great herbívoros dinosaurios imagines, vagando by the countryside. Time and time again they stopped to mordisquear the most substantial plants. Which were those plants? During the Jurásico period, in the middle of the Era of the Dinosaurios, the climate became warm and humid. The seas invaded great part of the firm Earth, that covered with a dense carpet of mosses and ferns. The giant equisetos and ferns formed dense forests. At this time, the plants began to produce for the first time polen and seeds, that helped them to reproduce better. Before, the masculine cells of the plants had to swim in the water until the feminine cells like very small tadpoles. A grain of polen contains a masculine cell in a tiny impermeable wrapper. Like a dust speck, it can cross many kilometers. Finally, the cells delas plants could travel by earth, which offered more opportunities to them to reproduce. A seed is an embryo of plant with its own food warehouse. If it arrives at the suitable place, a seed can begin the life with good foot and grow with food provision. The esporas, reproductive cells, of the simpler primitive plants were not thus. The first plants with seeds were gimnospermas or naked seeds. They appeared immediately before the dinosaurios, and included the cicadáceas, the ginkgos and the coniferous. Some plants with seeds bloomed at the beginning of the Era of the Dinosaurios, whereas these animals were multiplied and they devoured them. Many had similar leaves to the ferns, others had leaves with aspect of hair. They were extinguished before the dinosaurios disappeared. The cicadáceas were much successful during all the Era of the Dinosaurios. They were looked like palms. They had a stem as the trunk of a tree and great leaves similar to those of the ferns, that extended in fan in their superior part. They polen happened flying from a cicadácea to another one, and their seeds grew in great fragmentation hand grenades. Still some cicadáceas survive. In the forests of the Jurásico tens of types different from ginkgo grew. Today a species, only survives almost exactly equal to its historical relatives. This living fossil is called ginkgo, and has leaves in form of fan that appear of dumpy lateral small branches, located throughout the main branches. If you are placed under ginkgo, you can you imagine that you have returned to the Era of the Dinosaurios. One often says that the dinosaurios dominated the Earth during the Jurásico period. Perhaps they were the dominant animals, but another group reigned in the vegetal world, the coniferous. The coniferous are trees with fragmentation hand grenades. Those that we know today they are pines firs, larches, and other many types. They evolved from trees related to the ginkgos, makes about 300 million years. During the Jurásico period forests of pines, disks extended by the horizon immense and araucarias, that provided food and refuge to countless animals. Have been some fossil dinosaurios in whose stomachs it had sharpened leaves in water form, like those of the coniferous. You can imagine an interminable lunch with pine needles? gigantic secuoyas also is coniferous. One is the greater alive beings than there has been jamas on the Earth; they reach up to 100 meters of height and their trunks can measure more than 10 meters of circumference. Today only they grow in the west of North America. They have been fossil of rock similar trees of the Jurásico, so that the dinosaurios had to walk among them. The disks have leaves in needle form, but they do not give fragmentation hand grenades. his they polen is developed in amentos or inflorescencias, and their seeds create in soft chalices of scarlet color. The trees like which we see at the moment touch up to 3,000 years. The fossils show that the disks grew in abundance in the forests of the Jurásico. Substance the golden and vitreous call amber is fossilized resin. one is the sticky matter that exudes a tree when its crust cracks. When you become a cut in the skin, it leaves blood to you, later a scab coagulates and forms that blocks the wound. The resin does the same with the trees. The coniferous are distinguished by their resin production. Perhaps dinosaurio bit the crust of a pine. The resin would bring forth and form a sticky drop, that fossilized and it became amber. This last one contains sometimes fossil of catched insects makes million years. The next time which you happen through a wooded zone, looks for cicadáceas, ginkgos and coniferous. They already existed at the time of the dinosaurios. The geologic periods The measurement of the geologic time the history of the life Archaic Era Precámbrico Was Paleozoica Cambrico Ordivicio Silúrico Carboniferous Devónico Pérmico Was Mesozoica Triásico Jurásico Cretácico Was Cenozoic Tertiary She was Quaternary The CRETÁCICO the Cretácico name comes from the Latin word chalk, that means chalk. The layers of chalk and schist of this time crowded on the bed of the seas. The hard Cretácico for 145 to 66 million years. It was divided in two parts, inferior and superior. The inferior one from 145 to 98 million years. The superior one from 98 to 66 million years. In the inferior Cretácico the herbívoros got to be the most important dinosaurios. More species lived on dinosaurios than at no other time. Although there were many herbívoros, did not lack the fierce carnivores, although few were enough. Between the carnivores they were the advanced ornitomímidos ones, first dromeosáuridos, and some carnosaurio. Between the herbívoros dinosaurio lived greatest, than he was saurópodo. There were also the diplodócidos saurópodos and at the end of the early Cretácico they appeared the saurópodos titanosáurido. Also at the beginning of this period there were some braquiosáuridos. Between the tireóforos it had nodosáuridos and the estegosáuridos ones. At the end of this part of period the estegosáuridos ones were about to to disappear, to be replaced by the first anquilosáuridos ones. Being the Ornitópodos lived the hipsilofodóntidos ones and appeared the iguanodóntidos ones, whereas at the end of this part of period they were extinguished and they appeared the first hadrosáuridos and paquicefalosáuridos ones. In another species of dinosaurios totally different, they appeared the ceratopsios, dinosaurios with horns. At the end of the inferior Cretácico they appeared the predecessors of the ceratopsios, the psitacosáuridos ones. The superior Cretácico was a time of great changes. The continents that today we know acquired progressively their present form. The stations began to be like the present ones. During this time the greater change was the appearance of the flowers. The arbustivas plants had taken roots for the first time did more than 300 million years. At the beginning of the Cretácico the common plants grew throughout, adding pinceladas from green to the landscape of prehistory. At the end of the Cretácico period they appeared the esbeltos perennial pines. The trees arose that dumb its leaves, along with fig trees, palms and the tree of the bread, which now they grow only in the warm zones of the planet. The serpents appeared in the delayed Cretácico. They evolved from an animal of the Cretácico early called Pachyrhachis, that had body of serpent and head of small lizard. Most of the serpents they be not worried of his eggs or their young, safe in the case of the female of pitón, that enrosca delicately its body on eggs to incubate them. The dinosaurios were extinguished at the end of this period with surprising rapidity. Some scientists think that a gigantic meteorite crashed against the Earth with as much force that volatizó, forming clouds of dust and steam, until the point to even darken the sky during months and years. The dinosaurios were catched in deadly ventisqueros. The mammals, protected by their skins, survived and ended up dominating the world. The tests that we have are a great hole in the Caribbean Sea and the Earth a layer of materials of the meteorite. In this period the most common dinosaurios were the hadrosaurios advanced with crests in the head. While these herbívoros were very common the hipsilofodóntidos ones they finished disappearing. The paquicefalosáuridos ones lived during all this part of period. Between the ceratopsios the psitacosáuridos ones were extinguished to be replaced by protoceratópsidos and the ceratópsidos ones, both very common groups. The protoceratópsidos ones were extinguished and the ceratópsidos ones got to live until the end of the period. Between the tireóforos it had anquilosáuridos, nodosáuridos and of the estegosáuridos ones in this period only there was one. Between the carnivores it had ornitomímidos seemed to ostriches and the last ones dromeosáuridos, segnosáuridos and troodóntidos, that appeared in this period, and finally the dangerous ones tiranosáuridos, great carnivores who got to measure 15 meters in length. At the beginning of the Era of the Dinosaurios, the ground was covered with mosses and ferns, equisetos and lycopodiums, instead of scrubs. At the beginning of the Cretácico, the seas covered great part with the Earth. The dinosaurios continued evolving, like the plants that fed them. Until this moment, the plants had been brown and green. To the high giant ferns and the cicadáceas similar to palms the first true trees were united; coniferous like pines, cypresses and disks, which they followed more coniferous like larches, firs and cedars. During the Cretácico an enormous change took place: they appeared the flowers. Soon the green world was covered with alive yellows, red and blue that never had been seen previously. Some of the oldest fossils with plants with flowers are leaves of magnolias very similar to which still lives. They reach more than 30 meters of height, have brilliant and great leaves and beautiful flowers. In Europe parks and gardens grow in, but during the Cretácico, Europe was warmer and magnolias grew wild in all the continent. Today they exist more than 250,000 species of plants with flowers, three times more than all the other types of together plants. Its scientific name is angiospermaes. They include all the flowers of garden, the wild and the grass, from the orquídea to the tooth of lion, as well as the turf, the aromatic grass and the palms. All are shrubs and trees with flowers are angiospermaes, from the oak to the cherry tree, of magnolia to the mahogany and the apple tree to the albaricoquero. The plants with flowers are called angiospermaes, that mean covered seeds. A plant with flowers protects the seeds developing inside the flower, and later within envelopes or fruits. The other important group of plants with seeds, the coniferous, gimnospermas, or naked seeds is called. The seeds grow within a fragmentation hand grenade. The first fossils of plants with flowers perfectly show developed flowers. There are no fossils that represent a link with the plants without flowers. Then, from where come the plants with flowers? The called plants cycadeoidales can be the ancestors of the flowers. These plants are looked like the cicadáceas and have parts masculine and feminine in the same fragmentation hand grenade. The scientists think that some could evolve until becoming high hill flowers, where is difficult that fossils form. Nenúfar has a simple flower that perhaps it is looked much like the first flowers. Their sépalos and petals are arranged in spiral around the end of the stem. They form a scheme of young leaves in a cocoon. Many fossils are the rest of hard parts, like the teeth and bones of the animals or the crust and the trunk of the trees. The delicate petals of the flowers rarely become fossils. The tracks on primitive plants that have been, are the hard nerviaciones of their leaves, that yes fossilize well. The birches were current during the Cretácico. They have been fossil of his round and indented leaves, very similar to those of the present birches. Also high poplars grew. When they appeared the plants with flowers, new ways were necessary to transport polen from a flower to another one. The wind was a possibility. The very small and light grains of polen could maintain in the air during several kilometers. Many polinizadas plants continue being today by the wind. The insects also help the polinización. The flowers have showy petals to attract them and sweet nectar to feed them. While the insects suck the nectar, they polen adheres to his body. The insects transport this polen to other flowers. Magnolia, one of most primitive, continues depending on the escarabajos, flies, butterflies and bees so that they transport his polen. To principle of the Cretácico, the landscape would have seemed us little familiar. He was in favor compound mainly of coniferous, ferns, mosses and cicadáceas. Towards the end of this period, the scene had changed considerably. Nine tenth parts of the forests were made up of plants with flowers. Even while the dinosaurios were extinguished, the plants with flowers were prospering
The minoica civilization



The minoica civilization It receives east name, given by Sir Arthur Evans in honor of mythical king Minos, the flourishing civilization in Crete from year 2000 a.C. ca. whose predominance and influences in the Aegean world are manifest, with a evolution in the Age of the very different and own Bronze. Their geographic situation and the wealth of their ground provided few minarales resources to him, but in the great part this and center prairies and pastoral plateaus, olive trees, grapevines, oaks, cypresses and in it North parts and this beaches protected favorable for the dockage of boats of all type. Before the 2500 to C. the rest of metals are little, except for the obsidian of Melos. Despite from the 2500 to the 2000 population the wealth grows in number and thanks to the technical advances: predominance of tools of stone and clay, even after the introduction of the metallurgy. The basic characteristics of Crete at this time, according to Finley, is the absorption of cultural elements (and population) coming from continental Greece, the Cíclades, Smaller Asia, Syria and Egypt thanks to the commerce within its own and coherent development. Imprimieron its cretense culture to the metallic vases and objects (copper daggers) and in Old Minoico MA already begins to appear the embryo of the minoica architecture with its structure agglutinated in form of cell of honeycomb. With respect to the origin of the minoica civilization from the etnológico point of view it is difficult to assign to the minoicos cretenses with some well-known town. One of admitted theses more is than they are inheriting direct of the neolithic inhabitants of the island (who would arrive at the same one towards the 6000 to C.) and which the nonneolithic towns (Indo-European or nonIndo-European) that could have arrived at the island did not prevail, but that was absorbed by the cretense culture without imposing hers. Palmer, the eminent lingüísta, raises that the destruction of the palaces towards the 1700 to C. is work of the penetration in the island of a town anatolio, the luvitas, which would also explain the change of writing, Linear To instead of the hieroglyphic one, but to lack of the deciphering of the Linear one To, nothing is safe. If we followed the news of Crete that gives Homero in the Odyssey, the cretense population was a mixed population conformed by cidonios, eteocretenses and pelasgos, towns of which, aside from the name, as soon as nothing is known. Social, cultural and economic characteristics of the minoica civilization The characteristics of this civilization that granted such cultural predominance to him are the following ones: * as far as the religion they do not have anthropomorphic deities (what very it would be related to the cults of the neolithic ones to the forces of the nature), except for the Great Goddess Mother, goddess of the also well-known fertility like the Great Lady of the Labyrinth, that appears sometimes represented with the minoico typical dress and serpents in both hands, symbols they also of the fertile Earth forces; * for the exercise of his cults they have small semiunderground sanctuaries, within the palaces sometimes, and caves next to the establishment place; it seems to be that these caves were primitive the mulberry one of the first neolithic inhabitants of the island; later they would leave them like dwelling, but not like sanctuaries; they have been ritual of the minoica culture implies the relation of the bull (animal of great sexual, erótica and fertilizadora load) by the news of the murals of Cnosos and the legend of Minos and the Minotauro; * in the embalsamamiento of deads they use the honey to the time that in the rituals of deads takes part the fermentation like natural process of renovation of the life; * it has a solid economic base with a dense population (one calculates that the population of the island at time of splendor had to make the rounds between 400,000 and means million inhabitants) as well as a very productive agriculture and cattle ranch (one also calculates that the number of flocks only of ewes of Cnosos would go up to around the 1000); * asímismo the commerce was favored by the deproductos manufacture and export of luxury in gold (cf. lamina of the gold slope) and silver, ceramics; it had a great fleet, caused by his insular situation, strategic position, its manufactured products and their shortage of metallic raw materials; * its society presented/displayed a strong specialization: write, carpenters, shepherds, agriculturists, gunsmiths, escultores, lapidarios, glassworkers, potters, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, tanners, weavers, painters, etc..; Small board written in jerogífico Small board written in linear B * they had the writing (taken from another developed town or in own ground), divisible this one in three stages: hieroglyphic, Linear To and Linear B (this last system only of micénica time and to write down the Greek language already, is evolution of the linear one To, that in opinion of some it could write down the luvita); * spiritual and material leadership of an authority palaciega (which it seemed to receive the name of Minos) that was forced to renew its mandate every year by means of a marriage-rejuvenecimiento with the Great Goddess Mother represented in the great priestess, celebration that would be without a doubt of neolithic character and vestige of a matriarcal society; * each family had a earth parcel that worked for themselves and seems that the enslaved class or did not exist or it did in a very small proportion; * ruling La Paz can that is more peculiar the minoica characteristic, because it took to them not to fortify his establishments, to occupy the open and unprotected plains and places; it is not necessary to attribute it to his powerful fleet since talasocracia makes Evans with his; the fleet was commercial and nonsingle-breasted uniform jacket. The minoica civilization reached such splendor that, thanks to their commercial contacts, could export their way of culture to all the Aegean: throughout II the millenium the Cícladas gradually received a strong influence of Crete although there are colonizadores, only no commercial locations, and parallelly in continental Greece, where an ample process of about 400 years took place denominated "minoización of griegos" (arrived towards the 2000 to C.) and that would give rise to the later micénica civilization (1600 to C.). Later, towards the 1400 papers they were reversed and they will be the Greek micénicos those that will give rise to the "micenización of Creta". The minoicos palaces The characteristic that surprises more of the minoica civilization is, nevertheless, the way of establishment of the population surroundings to a central building: the palace, a civil complex to the service of the city. Ever since Evans in the border between century XIX and XX discovered the ruins of the palace of Cnosos, the greater one of the found palaces, to the present time the finding, desenterramiento and studies of populations with palaces has been increased in extreme degree; have been palaces which not even the name is known, because at classic time such did not exist asentamientosy did not become aware and memory of such, for that reason they have received present names; their names are: Cnosos, Zakro, Malia, Festo, Canea or Kania, Hagia Tríada, Gurniá, and poblamientos of Tilisos, Kamilari, Mirtos and Palakaistro. All the palaces are characterized by peculiarities that are not in any other civilization of the world and say much in favor of the degree of civilization of the minoicos: * positioning and extension of the palace organic from an opened central area, a patio, as continuation of the collective form of the neolithic social organization; * as opposed to other cultures it is not a temple or sacred place the center of the palace nor of the town, but that the temple of the palace, aside from being small dependency-sanctuaries, occupy a marginal place within the palace and reproduce and remember caverns; this agrees with the fact that the rites were celebrated in caves and is possible that with processions; * the palaces that count with two and, sometimes, three floors present/display generally a great number of rooms and dependencies of the ground floor to factories and warehouses for the grain, the oil, the wine, etc...; * they equipped to the palace of an aspect of greatness by means of three effects of ornato: fresh covering the inner walls of the most important dependencies (almost always marine natural reasons, or pugilatos or scenes of bulls (cf. laminae)); perrons and to revetir the palaces with sparkling stones cut in slabs with escoplos and mountain ranges being obtained I magnify effect with material little (only the Romans in the Antiquity obtained to something similar when having with marble slabs the most important buildings of Rome, like the Coliseo); finally also they equipped to the columns certain fascination with his made oval form and the policromía with the palace; * at the same time they equipped to the palace of an air of lightness by means of the use of great skylights to illuminate the rooms; mámparas folding and tracks of wood and pillar-columns instead of partitions to separate certain dependencies; thresholds in the waiting rooms; several patios in the palace, of which the power station used to be spotted; * hygiene of the palaces by means of a system of elimination of remainders by means of a sewage system, a system of drainage and another one of ventilation for the rooms thanks to great large windows and skylights; * finally the sensation that gives all minoico palace is the one of a labyrinth and it is not of estrañar; the real and main corridors that lead to dependecias have form of of zigzag; the perrons are not straight, but that frequently are in form of curve with which the visitor was lead to his real dependency and the dependency by an indirect way giving a roundup; at the same time the dependency of palace and you house of the city are crowded together and crowded to the neolithic way, remembering in many cases the alleys and side streets of the Arab towns; later the labyrinth idea became the one of amazing trap, although in an origin it was not it. The idea of construction of palaces and establishments comes given by an aversion to the symmetry in the facades and layouts of the buildings. Labyrinth yet in a denomination of Indo-European origin (suffix in - nth -) that does not know if it were applied to the set of the palace or to a room where apparently it danced a complex dance (called of the labyrinth), part of the ritual of the Great Goddess Mother between the light and the darknesses (life and death), whose steps would be drawn in the ground maracndo the direction of the dance. To indicate that the notion of labyrinth and minotauro it seems to be applied in the Antiquity only to the palace of Minos in Cnosos. Despite all the palaces they do not belong to the same period and some of them were reconstruídos two or three times during II the millenium due to the natural catastrophes (earthquakes, tidal waves and the joint operation of both like consecencia of the outbreak of the volcano of the island of Tera towards the 1500-1400); this has taken to differentiate within the cretense and minoica chronology: * period prepalaciego: 2600-2000 to C. (Old Minoico MA II and MAIII) * period palaciego 1º: 2000-1700 to C. (Minoico Half MM I and MM II); palaces of Cnosos (it can that previous to the 2000), Malia and Festo; * period palaciego 2º: 1700-1400 to C. (Minoico Half MM III and Recent Minoico MR I To and MR II B); new palace of Festos, the one of Zakro, Hagia Tríada and Gurniá; * period postpalaciego: 1400-1100 a.C. (Recent Minoico MR III) of micénica time; the new palace of Hagia Tríada. By the size of the palace and the Cnosos establishment it had to be "capital" of the minoico world and the other populations with palaces they were cities of second order with governors or princes possibly subordinated to the power of the governor of Cnosos who also were, like that one, judges and priests, together with the maintenance of the monopoly of the metallurgy of the poblamientos when having the factories in the own palace. It is very probable that in addition they existed scattered by the plains of Crete a series of semiindependent landowners. The legend of Minos, king of the sea The more or less complete legend, without entering the different variants or versiónes, of Minos says: Zeus left to Europe in Crete, after to have generated in her three children: Minos, Radamantis and Sarpedón. In Crete Europe one married with Asterio. The three brothers fell in love with a young Mileto call and when this one preferred to Sarpedón, Minos expelled to Mileto of Crete and this one founded the city of Mileto. To the death of Asterio Minos it demanded the throne, it dedicated an altar to Posidón and it requested that a bull left the sea; a great white bull left and Minos gained the right to the throne. When not pleasing to him to Sarpedón, Minos expelled and exilió in Hair shirt, where it became king. Minos married then with Pasífae and Posidón, to take revenge itself of a change in a promised sacrifice, did that Pasífae enmorara of the white and disguised bull with a wood cow construída by Labyrinth, generated of the bull to the Minotauro. In order to hide such Minos insult it ordered to Labyrinth the construction of a place separated from Cnosos to lock up to the Minotauro and Pasífae. Labyrinth constructed the Labyrinth. Radamantis remained in Crete and it transferred to his brother the custom to him to meet every nine years in a cave with Zeus and to obtain new laws for his town. Minos seems to be the title that received the governor and the regal dynasty of the minoica cretense culture of Cnosos, personage who had to make administrative and sacerdotal functions. From him the news through mythology and of the philosophers and historians have arrived us who have spoken of their figure. Plato thought that Minos was a very wise governor to the time that a great judge who every nine years met with Zeus; the modern archaeologists and historians seem to have identified this news with a ceremony that was celebrated every eight complete years in which Minos renewed its mandate like governor, but not serving to Zeus but to the Great Goddess minoica Mother, on who it depended and whose position was like priest. Before following I want to indicate that the mitológica tradition of Minos confuses in this name to all the governors of Cnosos (then it was his title and of no of them the name has been transmitted us) as well as the micénicos governors who, after invading the island, assumed the regency of the island under the same title that the micénico governor, that is to say, who are united minoicas and micénicas traditions, to the time that the actions of many different governors; the idea of the service of Cnosos to Zeus transmitted by Plato, would be micénica and the service to the Great Goddess Mother, minoica. Another anachronistic news of its mythology is that hijastro is done to him of Asterio, grandson of I gild, the one that means that even Crete mythology was doria, thing that does not happen until the end del II millenium to C..Al same Téctamo time, father of Asterio, it is said in the mythology that took to Crete a mixture of eolios and pelasgos (including perhaps jonios del Ática), perhaps making reference to the inhabitants of the island there s. VIII to C. composed of aqueos, dorios, eolios, pelasgos and cidonios. The recognition of the power of Minos would be the affirmation of the power dorio in the island. On the other hand mythology transmits also a branch to us of the lineage of Minos other people's to the Greek world: her Europe mother, sister among others of Cadmo, king of Tebas, is daughter of Agenor, son of Libya and Posidón and coming from Egypt, and of Telefasa or Argíope, coming from Canaán. The meaning of its name, "de wide rostro", he is a synonymous one of the Full Moon, title of the goddesses moons Deméter Lebadea and Astarté in Sidón (perhaps related to the Great Goddess minoica Mother, of which the moon was a symbol). The violation of Europe on the part of Zeus would gather a ritual in which the priestess of the Moon rode to backs of Toro-Sol. It has been wanted to see an incursion of Crete in even Phoenician explain this myth. The news of the Mileto young person gives account to us of more than probable foundation of Mileto on the part of cretenses (minoicos or micénicos), confirmed in addition by the fact that to Ladé, in Mileto, is related it to the cemetery of Asterio. That Sarpedón emigrated to Smaller Asia, to Caria and Lycia, has been interpreted as the establishment of places for the commerce of Crete with these regions. The news of the relation of Pasífae with the Minotauro is explained like a rite in which the Great Priestess of the Moon, that she took cow horns (Pasífae), and king Minos, with a mask with face of Toro celebrated a ritual marriage under an oak. The bull is the ritual animal of Crete: they are left ferescos with scenes of bulls (the famous jump of the bull, deprote or rite), it was sacrifice animal and there is bronze statuettes. The Labyrinth like already has been said is the palace of Cnosos, an asymmetric and confused set of rooms, waiting rooms, lobbies and runners in whom a strange visitor easily lost itself. For Evans the name would come from labrys, word fights and causes to decay that it means axe, doing reference to the double axes, sign of disnastía real minoica of Cnosos. Also it gathers the idea of a ritual, a mosaic drawn in the ground as pattern at the moment to follow in the accomplishment of a dance (like the dances "laberínticas" of Passover de Resurreccio'n in Russia and Wales). Despite we have other slight knowledge about Minos. A conception of Minos as a wise governor makes reference to the Minos minoicos, whereas the idea of autarkic Minos is a characterization derived from Minos the last micénico governor of Cnosos before its destruction, which exerted a cruel domination to acquire a sufficiently great wealth to perhaps extend its power beyond Crete to the Cícladas and to other islands (Cyprus). Heródoto at the same time transmitted two ideas to us about the power of Minos: one, its powerful fleet (the commercial one of the minoicos) and another one, the character soldier of the same one (it builds of the Minos micénicos); this idea was taken more far by Evans when it unearthed Cnosos: invistió to Minos like the owner and gentleman of the Aegean under the exercise of his talasocracia, a reign of the fear and a control of the sea that Homero in Odyssey XI describes as despotic. Again the minoico Minos and the micénico are mixed: the minoicos governors settled down in all the Aegean commercial establishments in the coasts, without getting to colonize the regions where they established these enclaves; commercially speaking yes they dominated the Aegean and they had one "talasocracia comercial" inside and outside the Aegean, to the time whom never the arms for anything used and La Paz it was the dominant note of his civilization; on the other hand, the Minos micénicos yes established small colonies in the Aegean and in addition they exerted a despotic domination basing his power on the war, of here the despotic idea of talasocracia. The colonies that Tucídides affirms that Minos created in the Aegean it is necessary to consider them like commercial missions or diplomatic shipments by the minoica Crete to guarantee the good will and the aid of and to the islanders; the example more characteristic than has been discovered archaeologically until now is Akrotiri in the island of Tera. Rites related to Minos To the myth of Minos many are associated more: the one of its children, the one of Pasífae, the one of Sarpedón, the one of Radamantis, but I believe that two are most significant: the one of Labyrinth and the one of Teseo and Ariadna. the myth of Labyrinth Labyrinth belongs to the real family of Athens, descediente of Erecteo and was characterized being an admirable blacksmith and to be a man of talent without equal. It fled from Athens to assassinate his nephew, another inventor who surpassed when discovering the mountain range to him. When arriving at the Crete de Minos it worked peacefully to his service, enjoying of his favor. After the subject of Pasífae and the Minotauro, Minos locked up it in the Labyrinth by he himself construído along with its Ícaro son. In order to flee from the labyrinth it devised the construction of wings with wax and pens for and the their son; this one perished to approach too much the sun and to melt the sun the wax; another version says that it did it with a boat that lent Pasífae to him and it took refuge in Sicily and that Ícaro fell to the sea; another one says more that it invented the candles for navigation and thus it fled. Minos left to look for it and Sicily says that it killed Minos while fish or boiling water bathed with. Its myth also presents/displays acronismos. Labyrinth, Talos and Hefesto seem to be titles of a same mythical personage. The myth of Labyrinth and Thalli and the one of De'dalo and Ícaro seem to combine the ritual to burn to the substitute of the solar king, who had put eagle wings, in the bonfire of spring with the rite to throw a drug with perdiz wings. The huída one of the labyrinth is understood like the huída one of the floor of the mosaic with the dance of the labyrinth, but the huída one to Sicily is understood like the huída one of the native forjadores of bronze from Crete to Cumas, Sicily and Sardinia like consequences of the micénicas invasions and dorias. Although Labyrinth consists like athenian by demo that takes its name, the dedálicas arts were concerned from Crete to Athens. To him they attribute the invention of the candles of the boats, which allowed a greater speed of these (and for that reason Minos it could not reach it in the sea) or at least invented some device that equipped with greater speed the boats. Teseo and Ariadna Minos ordered that the athenians sent seven boys and seven girls every nine years to labyrinth of Crete, where hoped the Minotauro to devour them. To Teseo it was called on to him to go by drawing or the own Minos chose it in Athens. When arriving at Crete, Ariadna, daughter of I mine, one fell in love with him and it offered the way to him to escape of the labyrinth: a magical thread ball of yarn and the instructions approaches EC how to enter and to leave the labyrinth: to open the front door and to tie to the threshold the thread that will be disentangled conform advance; soon, once died the Minoturo, it is only necessary to cross the inverse way. Eesto fact lead to port all the athenian group and took with himself to Ariadna to which it left in Naxos. Greece began to minoizar itself from the XVIII to C. from the commercial bows imposed by Crete. The myth seems to be a rebellion of the athenians against the cretenses: construction of a fleet, rebellion and sacking of Cnosos and a treaty of peace creto-athenian (marriage between Teseo and Ariadna); this had to take place at micénica and nonminoica time. The tribute of the athenian young people to the Minotauro was demanded to Athens and when killing Teseo to the animal or winning in the fight to Minos (whose symbol was the bull) it releases to the athenians of the tribute. It is possible that at some time (minoica or micénica) there were human sacrifices in Crete. The Cicladas The Cícladas as a whole is a series of islands rather of small size, but characterized to have inhospitable coasts and beaches apt for the boats of then, cultivateable earth, agricultural resources, fishes, flocks of ewes, pigs and goats, development of the commerce by their geographic situation and mainly work of the stone (obsidian of Melos and marbles of Paros and Naxos) as well as a certain metal wealth. From the 3000 to C. it begins to receive influences from Smaller Asia, Crete and continental Greece, but it develops a series of own characteristics that causes that cicládica culture is called to him: * exports of metals and manufactured products of clay and marble; * ídolos of marble with feminine forms with physical aspects and sexual attributes little marked that accompanied to deads in the tombs. Few establishments are known this culture, but it knows that in the period Cicládico Half cm it undergoes a decay, although the obsidian of Melos and the marble of Unemployments never let be exported. Cyprus It was never integrated totally in the Greek world and only in periods counted the Greek influence was predomiannte in the great island. During all the Age of Bronze the commerce of Cyprus with the East benefitted enormously to the island; their strategic position of bridge between Egeo and Smaller Asia with the Next East and Egypt as well as its good beaches apt for the dockage of boats were one of the keys of their development. The main other and is the export of the its great excessive of copper to the foreigner (name of the island from end of II the millenium is Cyprus nonIndo-European word that designates copper and that the Indo-European languages have taken to designate this metal from the name of the island: Latin cuper Spanish copper; Cyprus did not have two either Indo-European names previously: Alasiya and Yadnama). The island underwent during III the millenium the emigration of originating population of Anatolia that brought with himself innovations in the ceramics, interments and in the art to work metals. By the end of III the millenium the establishments grow gradually in size and amount of population. Towards the 2000 the commerce with the minoica Crete is organized, the Cícldas and Near East and from the 1800 to 1200 to C. Alasiya (name at that time of Chipe) obtained its greater splendor and the Pharaohs of Egypt and towns of East had it like one potenciay to their king like a powerful governor; they exaggerated somewhat, but it was a very rich and prosperous country. The economic development had affected the structure to be able in Alasiya: they appear arms in the tombs, the locations are fortified for the first time and strengths elevated in the interior moved away of the coasts rise. Towards the 1400 to C. micénica ceramics it begins to enter the country; towards the 1100 name of Alasiya it disappears, but the amount of micénica ceramics is increased with the affluence of people coming from Greece who escaped of the fall of the micénico world and which they would bring with himself the pictográfica writing that evolved to the silabario chipriota of classic time as well as the contribution of the call chipriota, dialecto related to arcadio and panfilio, that long time in the island coexisted with a not deciphered Greek language


the aim of the minoicos 110 kilometers to the north of Crete are located the island that today we know like Tera (fear) and that 4000 years ago their inhabitants called Kalliste (the very beautiful one). A place where the splendor from one of the most impressive towns of the antiquity, the minoico arrived, and that today, thanks to people like Spyridon Marinatos, Christos Doumas or Charles Pellegrino, we rescued of the forgetfulness and we give back the light to him of the sun that once lost. Charles Pellegrino Hablamos of a civilization, the minoica, that was envies of the Pharaohs and viziers of Egypt. They had the first fleet of the world and its authority in the Mediterraneo included from the east to Tirrenia (Italy). They even had hot water that they distributed by the buildings of up to 4 floors of height by means of a modern system of pipe. But at the end of century XVII a.C. a terrible volcanic explosion caused that more than 80 km cubical of terana rock they rose by airs in steam form and in its place formed, because of the invasion of the Mediterraneo in the hollow, an impressive means and cataract more of a kilometer of depth. A precious and simultaneously Dantesque scene that meant the principle of the aim for the minoicos and that without a doubt had a great echo between the neighboring towns. As much as so that a millenium later Plato wrote about the happened thing and called to the minoicos, atlantes? EMPIRE MINOICO We went back to the fourth millenium before a boy, to whom llamarón Jesus, was born in Bethlehem and changed the course of history. In the island of Crete it began to emerge the minoica civilization. It is not known for sure from where east town came, but what if is safe it is that around the 3500 a.C. these or lived the Aegean island (until the moment have not been tools or pieces of the pottery previous to this date). Its technological development was brutal, single comparable to the happened one in Egypt between dynasties III and IV when it happened to construct simple mastabas undertakers to erect colossal pyramids. Around the 2100 a.C. the Minoico Empire, rather its navy, dominated great part of the Mediterraneo although it is not to be strange since they were practicamente single. And it is that the Egyptians never were made famous have a powerful fleet. The island of Tera, or what a Pacific town is left of her Era, shows of it is that they did not leave any sign of violence in his art. Their cities were not fortified and it is not known, until his decline, no evidence that makes think that they underwent some type of invasion or attacks on the part of another town. But in short, it does not have either because to surprise to us much, with similar fleet it was enough dificil that somebody could at least approach them. One of its main sources of resources was the commerce. Thus, when in century XXII a.C. their boats arrived at the coasts of Egypt and contemplated the magnificencia of their monuments safe that the eyes like plates were opened to them and they could not sleep during some nights thinking about all the businesses that could do. In fact the Egyptian certainties are numerous about Crete (or Keftiu as they called it) who have arrived until our days. The inhabitants of the Nile always considered to the minoicos as a town cultured and civilized and the commerce between both were very important from its beginnings. The situation was idyllic until something happened. Suddenly, during dinastia XVIII Egyptian and in the period of the reigns of Hatshepsut, Tutmosis III and Amenofis II, some representations of the minoicos in the tombs and temples were altered giving a more hellenistic touch them. And it is indeed in the tomb of Amenofis II (also call Amenhotep II) where the hieroglyphics allude for the last time to Keftiu in an image in which they appear foreigners with minoicos objects. Definitively something habia changed. The Egyptians had to let receive the visit of their friends the minoicos and in his place they began to arrive people with other clothes (Greek the continental ones occupied the minoicos territories after their decline). They noticed that the power habia changed of hands and there the adjustment of certain images. The Egyptian town always was a very diplomatic and flattering town. But, what took to this so abrupt change. I will always remember the words of Ipuwer when it says: "Hoy nobody sails until Biblos. What we will do with respect to the wood of cedar for ours momias? The priests are buried with their products; the noble are embalsamados with their corresponding oils, until as far as Keftiu. But no longer llegan." .. no longer they arrive, something has had to them to happen... THE TERA EXPLOSION And indeed, something had happened. It is hour to again direct our glance towards Tera, that small island to the north of Crete, and for it we will make of the hand of the prestigious arching-paleonto'logo Charles Pellegrino and with the data contributed by Marinatos and Doumas, people in charge of the excavations in Tera. In the center of the island an enormous volcano of 1600 meters of height did not prevent that brave ones lived there. They maintained a close contact with the neighboring island of Crete and its technology was wonderfully modern. But all it I leave it for more ahead, now centrémonos in Tera and its volcano. We are in the middle of century XVII a.C. The volcano, calm and calm during many years decides to leave its lethargy being caused the terror between the inhabitants of Tera. A series of earthquakes of certain magnitude (have been even stairs cracked by the seismos) forced people to flee towards the neighboring islands. Reason why the excavations have allowed to find out the march took place of controlled form. Have not been rest of cattle ranch, jewels or objects of value (safe in a small zone to the west of the island), which makes think that to the teranos it gave time them to gather all his properties before leaving Tera. The ash that gave off the volcano caused that a small layer of this one in the city formed but little it happened more. Perhaps effects of earthquakes in stairs Spent the time, perhaps single months years, and the volcano returned to a rest state, the sufficient one so that some decided to return to their homes (works of repair in certain places of the city have been discovered). But a.C. arrived the autumn from the 1628 (an estimation of Pellegrino that I will explain at another moment) and the volcano woke up again, the this very many time with more violence. The little people who were decided to return left again and the volcano began to emanate such amount of ash that certain places were buried under more than 60 meters of her, and this is what it has allowed that we have found the city nowadays almost so and as 3500 years left the teranos it more ago than. But the worse thing still was about to to arrive. At a moment the enormous volcano exploded of form violentísima. The center of the island, where was this one, disappeared in thousandth of second and in its place, where before there was a mountain of 1600 meters of height now was an enormous hole of 125 km cubical with a depth of more than 1,5 km where the water of the Mediterraneo began to enter forming an immense cataract. Excavations of the lost city, Tera So that you hagais an idea, the force of the explosion of the volcano of Tera would be comparable to the given off one by 150 hydrogen pumps exploding simultaneously. It was 6 times more powerful than the explosion of the Krakatoa in 1883 and is necessary to remember that this one was listened to more than 3200 km of distance and had the sufficient force like cracking walls and making shake windows to more than 160 km. In Tera, after disappearing the volcano, immediately an enormous cloud formed that covered the sky. It began to rain fire on the neighboring islands of Melos, Naxos and Crete. While the cloud, formed by ash and a curtain of steam that appeared and disappeared in its edges, advanced giving off an intense heat. In less than one hour the shade of the death reached 300 km of distance sinking the boats that were in their way. It arrived at Turquia and Egypt turning the day night although its temperature and forces had diminished much. The shade continued towards the east on Syria and Iran and went away dividing and smoothing while it crossed Asia. It is possible to mention that have been rest of the terana ash layer in diverse parts of Egypt. And AFTER The FIRE... THE WATER Although the fire rain or the ash cloud and intense heat were important also is certain that not as much as to affect of so catastrophic way the island of Crete, true center of the minoico power. Another much more devastating force had to be the culprit of which the minoicos lost their hegemony in the Mediterraneo and they were defenseless before the invasion of foreign towns, in this case of Greek the continental ones. In order to find out all it we are going to retrotraer itself to the summer of 1932 d.C. The archaeologist Spyridon Marinatos was working in the northern coast of Crete (the North coast, as opposed to Tera) in a called place Amnisos. There, in excavations, he observed as stone walls had collapsed of a somewhat strange way. In one of the houses he lacked all the superior part of a vertical block and as it was his surprise when the rest of the block was found to more than 100 meters, fitted perfectly and weighed average ton. It is necessary to be idiot, and Marinatos was not it, to think that some of the later invaders could be dedicated to break and to transfer a block of average ton to more than 100 meters without no apparent cause. No, that block was dragged by the force of a great water obstacle, tsunami. Enormous tsunami devastated the north of the island of Crete and caused the chaos between its population Later investigations have contributed tests about tsunami that it was originated after the explosion of Tera. For example, one knows that in the gulf of Ker to me (Turquia), more than 200 km to the east of Tera, the wave reached with such force that thanks to the holografía of the land, that actuo like wedge, this one rose until the 250 meters of height and penetrated more than 50 km inland. Something similar happened in the west, in the gulf of Nauplis (Greece). Hill to imagine that devastating effects happened in the North coast of Crete because of tsunami. The city of Cnosos (to the north of the island) had to succumb before the force of the water and most of the fleet (not to say everything) berthed in its port of Heraclión had to be reduced to chips. , perhaps single some boats that were on the high seas at that moment could be saved of the terana wave since the true one to be able destructive of this one resides when breaking against the coast, in the interior of the sea their effects are reduced considerably. Although it is necessary to remember that many of these boats also underwent the ash cloud and heat. OCASO MINOICO Lady tirinta, minoico art In hours the important cretense fleet was reduced considerably and what is worse, without infrastructures necessary to reconstruct it in just a short time. With an island, Crete, practicamente devastated, with the destroyed port and shipyards and without hardly boats, the situation was very delicate. They were defenseless and Greek the continental ones took advantage of it invading the island. The minoicos happened to control all the Mediterraneo to be subjugated to the hellenistic power in hardly 50 years. One does not know very well that it happened with all the survivors, specially with the teachers and experts craftsmen. Perhaps some were selected by Greek and the most valuable envoys to Greece or Italy. One thinks that another part sailed towards the Southeastern course to Tunez and Atlases settled in mountains. Others went to the south, to Egypt, where most talented apparently they became an Egyptian noble set. And perhaps the rest traveled towards the east, taking their particular architecture to the country that denominated Filistea or Palestine. 2000 years it contemplated to the Earth walking of a Pacific town, intelligent cult and. 2000 technological years of prosperity and advances. 2000 years of dreams interrupted by a nature without compassion and that still nowadays remembers to us that never we will be able to dominate it. Gustaria not to finish without escribiros an appointment to me of Charles Pellegrino.. an appointment for the reflection of as a.C could be the world of nowadays without happened the autumn of the 1628... "Si Tera had not exploded, could have arrived at the television in the days of Cristo" Stolen Jose Email: jose@historia-antigua.com

the Incas


The $andes This morning, before dawn, has rained much. Shortly after the wind of the south has risen and has swept clouds. Now, a splendid sun stands out on the dark blue sky. Although he is very early, the sun already illuminates the top of mountains higher than they border the boxed valley, and floods all the wall of the steep cliff. It warms up the rock, that cruje weakly. A huge landscape Here and there, a rock piece or a stone loses their fragile balance, they roll suddenly by the hill and they bounce with great noise before falling to the torrent and sprinkling drops of water. Thousands of torrents lower of the heights, crujiendo on the gray and smooth surface. They arise from the perpetual snows that crown the shining tops. In spite of the sun, still long ago cold. Here, to 4 000 meters of height, even at level of the equator, the temperature is low in the morning. These mountains are the $andes, an immense mountain range that borders South America throughout the coast of the Pacific. Very they are escarped and they cut the passage to strong tropical rains that come from the east, and make the coastal plain barren, to which they isolate throughout the Pacific Ocean. The men of the heights In spite of everything, in these pending escarping men and women live. They are stocky, they have cobriza complexion, salient pómulos and black and smooth hair. They are farmers and they cultivate the fields in staggered terraces, maintained by stone walls. In the mountain, the Earth is scarce; for that reason, "indios" they must begin to carry it with baskets patiently. They separate and they pile up stones and, with efforts, they manage to turn the zoomings hills an infinite succession of level t errazas. They carefully water them with the water of torrents. They turn aside the water and they take it by cooked earth pipes or channels excavated in zigzag to diminish the stream force. They make this enormous work with simple hard wood woods, with tools and stone and, sometimes, only with their hands. In the town, a day of market Above of the culture fields it appears a town. He is quite great; it is constructed with you marinate, is to say bricks of dried mud to the sun. The houses are low and have the tile roofs covered with strubble. This morning is much animation because it is day of market thing that happens every ten days. Nevertheless, in the square central seat, flooded of sun, some men only see themselves. The majority works in the field. Others are in the army or they are temporarily to the service of the important people of the empire. However, there are Indians squatting, under its ample gray or brown wool suit. Some have come from the villages of the mountain to interchange their limited resources: handfuls of peppers or red string beans, tomatos, potatoes, millrace ahuates and, sometimes, baskets finely braided. Some farmers offer more valuable products, like vasijas of ceramics or pens of birds multicolors. Almost always, the interchanges become in silence. In this mountainous empire, where the currency does not exist, the exchange is used. A certain weight of a product by the same weight of another product, a determined measurement of a product by the same measurement of another one occurs, or is maize or tomatos. Only the women who offer merchandise rarer s put more care; for example, those that offer the wonderful pens whereupon they embroider the splendid mantles in full dress. , in fact most beautiful of the market she is to be there, observing what the others do! PLANTS UNKNOWN FOR THE EUROPEAN Many of the fruits and vegetables that today we eat to newspaper before were not absolutely known for the European. They were not known until the first conquerors brought them of America. For example, the maize, the tomato, the peanut, the potato, the cacao, etc. A life lasts and singsong The women pass the rest of the time in the town where they have been born and where they will die. They take care of thousand tasks, often very hard. But they nowadays do not make the tasks of the home like us. In the dark houses of the Incas almost never she sweeps herself. The excrements of the conejillos of Indians crowd in the rooms with those of the dogs. That explains that there is as much misery, so many fleas, lice and garrapatas. The Incas spend the time rascando itself. As much plus that only rare time they wash themselves! The time which they do not dedicate to the cleaning they use it in spinning the wool or the cotton, to turn the maize flour, to make the food, to make cords with fibers of toots it and to work in the field with the men. Like they, the women use original "palo for cavar", of hard wood, provided with apoyapié. Sometimes, when the Earth is excessively dry, they must unite his forces two women to nail it in the ground. Also they must feed the small children, who are tied within the cradles, and that have the head surrounded by leather strap which they tighten a little every day more, to deform the skull to them. Because to the Incas, like a other many towns of America and the Australian Continent, they like the extended heads. The hard days and the numerous children exhaust the women, who age in a moment, just like its clothes, that do not subject more than with pins. The beautiful carefully made weaves will stop to the warehouses public of the town, like tax. To anybody it would be happened to him to lose the time becoming new suits. The flames In this immense country it is not scarce the wool, although ewes do not see themselves. There is an extraordinary animal, the flame. This distant relative of the camel, of small and arrogant head, has a thick wool, of more or less fine quality according to the species, that are sheared to spin. Nevertheless the flame performs another function. Sometimes extreme, its meat serves as vianda; but mainly it is used like load animal. It is necessary to recognize that he is not very effective. It cannot take more than 25 kilos nor cross more than 15 kilometers to the day. An ass would be more useful. But in year 1 500 there are no asses in America. It is an animal of the Old World, and the European have still not discovered Peru. Because, although Cristóbal Columbus arrived at the Atlantic coast of America in 1492, will have to spend a few years before the Spaniards arrive at the Pacific. In spite of its limitations, the flame is for the Incas an animal utilísimo, to which they have domesticated perfectly, and that lives in great flocks in the high rich plains in grass. THE FAMILY OF THE FLAMES The flame is used like animal of load, and by the meat and the wool; everything except milk. The alpaca very is appreciated by its wool, of excellent quality. The guanaco and the vicuna are the unique ones that still live in wild state. In the country of the Incas The escort of the curaca Some members of the escort examine with pride their arms: wood swords last provided with stones sharpened, pointed helmets and, in some cases, small fused and molded bronze axes. After them, a great number of flames harnessed and loaded with bulks, that the conductors hold with the bridle. Also there are servants, who remain in silence near a species of palanquín or portable chair, that now is supported in the ground. All these men wait for their head, the curaca, to undertake the trip. Dresses with a species of long, gray or brown vest, closed go ahead. In spite of the cold, the majority is with the legs and the arms to the air. Nevertheless, some take a species of wool or cotton legginses. All go footwear with peculiar sandals, whose sole does not protect the toes: thus one climbs with more facility up rocks! To anybody it seems to affect the glacial air to him. All are Indian of mountain, customary from children to support the snow, the ice and oxygen the shortage of the heights. Finally, the curaca leaves its house, escorted by its secretary. He is a massive man, of about forty years, and takes the sign of his power: one diadema of wool around the forehead, with a small plume of red pens on each c IEN. He is very proud. It finishes happening to his father, and one is glad to go for the first time to Cuzco, the distant capital. Paucar Manco, that one is its name, is going to present/display its respect Rather and flatteries from its town to the Supreme Inca in the celebration of the Sun, of the several towns, because Paucar Manco is the head of 10 000 families: in the region this very important occupies pu! They count so many wonders of Cuzco! For that reason it is of the good humor and it jokes with his quipucamayoc. A peculiar secretary Quipucamayoc is, simply, a secretary, although a little special: it does not use red paper nor, because the Incas do not know the writing, but has a peculiar system of annotation, quipo. It consists of a long cord to which they tie cordele s of different colors. These cords are divided and tieed at intervals certain with simple, double or triple knots. Each knot has a concrete meaning, that depends on its complication, its place and its color. Onas is few pers that know to interpret this so complicated system: only he, quipucamayoc, "lector of equipos", it is prepared for it from his childhood. Quipucamayoc of Paucar Manco is called Paucar Libiac: Paucar is the name of the tribe, and Manco, or Libiac, is person names. It very has the skull extended and the sunk, deformed forehead in his childhood by his parents. Proud pair is straightened to exhibit its wide backs, although it only measures a meter sixty. Between the Incas there are no high people. THE QUIPOS The system of the quipos is mnemonic, that is to say, it contains references for the memory. Nowadays, most of the investigators thinks that the knots only had an arithmetic value, to facilitate estadísti cas. Nevertheless, it seems that certain quipos served to remember certain type of Literature: some you will sing of develops or passages of the history of the country. Until now, nobody has been able to decipher the quipos. Because they are very different from others, because each quipucamayoc used his, a more or less incomprehensible one for the others. All the authentic quipos that we have in have contrado in graves. Some archaeologists think that, probably, the Incas put in the quipos tombs that they did not mean nothing or they contained riddles. Of this form they hoped to maintain occupied the spirit of mu erto and to prevent, thus, that its ghost returned to torment to the alive ones. In these conditions, the most powerful computer would even be incapable to decipher these "palabras cruzadas" in cords. Naturally, Libiac respects its head. But it cannot avoid a certain feeling of superiority. It knows that the curaca cannot do without him nor his knowledge of cords, tremendously complicated. Without them, how sabr ía exactly how many men and women has in its territory? Evidently, everybody knows that there are 10 000 families; but in 10 000 families deaths and births take place every day. Luckyly, they are the quipos faithfuls there and, in its naked complexes, Libiac knows "leer" the exact number of children born in the 10 000 families, the number of marriages, and the one of the granted earth parcels in this occasion. The amount of maize knows that the farmers harvest to the year, the amount of cocaine - shrub whose leaves chew the Incas which they gather and they dry in the plateau, the amount of potatoes, string beans or tomatos that harvest in their fields in terraces. It knows what day is today, that distances have crossed from the exit of the town, how many beautiful clothes have been woven, how many vasijas has made, how many bronze axes are had you fuse or, what weight of gold has been extracted of torrents or the mines of the mountain. While Libiac thinks about all this, the curaca responds with amiability to the aclamations that greet their exit. Soon one settles in palanquín that four men raise on their shoulders. Of this form, Paucar Manco initiates its long trip. In the country of the Incas The escort of the curaca Some members of the escort examine with pride their arms: wood swords last provided with stones sharpened, pointed helmets and, in some cases, small fused and molded bronze axes. After them, a great number of flames harnessed and loaded with bulks, that the conductors hold with the bridle. Also there are servants, who remain in silence near a species of palanquín or portable chair, that now is supported in the ground. All these men wait for their head, the curaca, to undertake the trip. Dresses with a species of long, gray or brown vest, closed go ahead. In spite of the cold, the majority is with the legs and the arms to the air. Nevertheless, some take a species of wool or cotton legginses. All go footwear with peculiar sandals, whose sole does not protect the toes: thus one climbs with more facility up rocks! To anybody it seems to affect the glacial air to him. All are Indian of mountain, customary from children to support the snow, the ice and oxygen the shortage of the heights. Finally, the curaca leaves its house, escorted by its secretary. He is a massive man, of about forty years, and takes the sign of his power: one diadema of wool around the forehead, with a small plume of red pens on each c IEN. He is very proud. It finishes happening to his father, and one is glad to go for the first time to Cuzco, the distant capital. Paucar Manco, that one is its name, is going to present/display its respect Rather and flatteries from its town to the Supreme Inca in the celebration of the Sun, of the several towns, because Paucar Manco is the head of 10 000 families: in the region this very important occupies pu! They count so many wonders of Cuzco! For that reason it is of the good humor and it jokes with his quipucamayoc. A peculiar secretary Quipucamayoc is, simply, a secretary, although a little special: it does not use red paper nor, because the Incas do not know the writing, but has a peculiar system of annotation, quipo. It consists of a long cord to which they tie cordele s of different colors. These cords are divided and tieed at intervals certain with simple, double or triple knots. Each knot has a concrete meaning, that depends on its complication, its place and its color. Onas is few pers that know to interpret this so complicated system: only he, quipucamayoc, "lector of equipos", it is prepared for it from his childhood. Quipucamayoc of Paucar Manco is called Paucar Libiac: Paucar is the name of the tribe, and Manco, or Libiac, is person names. It very has the skull extended and the sunk, deformed forehead in his childhood by his parents. Proud pair is straightened to exhibit its wide backs, although it only measures a meter sixty. Between the Incas there are no high people. THE QUIPOS The system of the quipos is mnemonic, that is to say, it contains references for the memory. Nowadays, most of the investigators thinks that the knots only had an arithmetic value, to facilitate estadísti cas. Nevertheless, it seems that certain quipos served to remember certain type of Literature: some you will sing of develops or passages of the history of the country. Until now, nobody has been able to decipher the quipos. Because they are very different from others, because each quipucamayoc used his, a more or less incomprehensible one for the others. All the authentic quipos that we have in have contrado in graves. Some archaeologists think that, probably, the Incas put in the quipos tombs that they did not mean nothing or they contained riddles. Of this form they hoped to maintain occupied the spirit of mu erto and to prevent, thus, that its ghost returned to torment to the alive ones. In these conditions, the most powerful computer would even be incapable to decipher these "palabras cruzadas" in cords. Naturally, Libiac respects its head. But it cannot avoid a certain feeling of superiority. It knows that the curaca cannot do without him nor his knowledge of cords, tremendously complicated. Without them, how sabr ía exactly how many men and women has in its territory? Evidently, everybody knows that there are 10 000 families; but in 10 000 families deaths and births take place every day. Luckyly, they are the quipos faithfuls there and, in its naked complexes, Libiac knows "leer" the exact number of children born in the 10 000 families, the number of marriages, and the one of the granted earth parcels in this occasion. The amount of maize knows that the farmers harvest to the year, the amount of cocaine - shrub whose leaves chew the Incas which they gather and they dry in the plateau, the amount of potatoes, string beans or tomatos that harvest in their fields in terraces. It knows what day is today, that distances have crossed from the exit of the town, how many beautiful clothes have been woven, how many vasijas has made, how many bronze axes are had you fuse or, what weight of gold has been extracted of torrents or the mines of the mountain. While Libiac thinks about all this, the curaca responds with amiability to the aclamations that greet their exit. Soon one settles in palanquín that four men raise on their shoulders. Of this form, Paucar Manco initiates its long trip. By the ways of the empire Capable engineers The way by which it advances the caravan is straight, solid, and crosses thousands of kilometers, always by the shortest line. Scale mountains, low to the bottom of valleys, passes precipices and torrents over suspension bridges, to crossbeam rocky spurs through tunnels. It is not done of stones but of a mixture, extraordinary resistant, of clay, it burdens and crushed straw, a mortar species able to support to the water and the ice during hundreds of years. There are two highways of this type, very long, that cross the empire of north to the south: one by the mountain, another one by the coast. And hundreds of ways, layouts of this a the west, unite them to each other. Paucar Manco and its companions could have followed the route of sea, easier; but the air of the level one is to them suffocating to these men who always have lived to more than 4 000 meters of height. Chatting with its secretary, the curaca is taken to the double time of the carriers. Nevertheless, after hours of march, it jumps of his bunk. It is not for stretching the legs. The incaicos ways, when always following the shortest line, adopt an sometimes crossed difficult. Thus, after to have crossed straight a small plateau in line, the travellers have followed complicated curves by slopes of mountains, and suddenly they are in the part alt to... of stairs! The "ingenieros of ways and puentes" of the empire they have an amazing ability; nevertheless, its technique enough is limited. It is necessary to consider that the Incas do not know the iron. They make all the its works, even most important, with instruments of stone and wood, and sálo sometimes of copper and bronze. They do not know the wheel either and, consequently, they do not have cars. When the engineers cannot draw up curves in the mountain, construct a bridge or excavate a tunnel, they carve rudimentary stairs. For it they cause that the rock is broken in the chosen site, watering it successively with water hirviend or and cold water; soon they smooth it in form of steps. Therefore, the group begins to lower. The carriers take the empty bunk, since the curaca has believed more prudent to be walking, supported in their command baton. Soldiers and conductors throw of the flames, that s and resist in the beginning because they go very loaded, but in the end they are resigned to lower in India row the five hundred or six hundred steps. Once the group has arrived down, the head returns to raise his bunk. A very fast mail Manco and its Libiac faithful not yet have had time to resume their conversation when a man appears by the way, running to great strides, and it reaches them. It has something to communicate to them? No. It advances them at full speed, in spite of the height, which tires the heart terribly. This one is the reason for which the Indians have the very great torácica box, and the lungs as the bellows of a forge. This man is a magnificent athlete, trained of sde young, like all the members of the special body of chasquis. If he runs of this form is, simply, because he is a messenger. In the empire Inca the mail exists and is, even, of most effective and fast of the world. He is not far better the one of our days... The rapidity of chasquis is impressive. Releasing itself by day and at night, they cross 250 kilometers to the day. Let us imagine that in an end of this empire, that includes about 4 500 kilometers of north to the south, a governor qui ere to send a part to Cuzco, the capital. As it does not know to write, it will make the message brief and will communicate orally it to chasqui. This one, once included/understood the message, is put at full speed in way. It runs therefore about two or three kilometers and, when approaching the first relief, it blows with a marine conch, or sends a shout. One of chasquis that hopes - always there are two in the place of the relief, each one watching in a direction of the way rises immediately and goes to its encounter. Both men continue running together, until first chasqui repeats the words of the message to the second, that follows its way until arriving at chasqui following. This peculiar type of mail crosses, thus, hundreds of thousands of kilometers. In very urgent cases, like scrambled or catastrophes, "hogueras of alarma" they still come up to the government with greater rapidity. Before chasquis has had time to arrive, the army estáya in way, just in case. Most extraordinary it is than the message always arrives at its destiny so and as it left. It will be because chasquis is punished terribly if they deform a single word? JUSTICE INCA The Incas take to joke neither the public service, nor justice, distributed generally by the local curaca or, in serious cases the more, by the governor of the province or the Inca in person. The jails do not abound: the mayorí;a of the crimes is punished with a fine, and the defendant count on certain guarantees. Nevertheless, a terrible punishment exists, the one of "la great piedra": from a meter of height they drop a rock of 100 kilos on the back of the criminal. Otr or punishment worse still, consists of leaving to the condemned in the dark of a full cave of serpents, dangerous porcupines, toads and other animals. If three days later the man still lives, is set free: I gave you dare do not wish them its death. Justice Inca is smoother with the important people, although this is less unjust of which it seems: because indeed, a simple reproach of the coarse emperor to dishonor completely to noble.Muchos dies of pain or suici occurs by that reason. The rest at the end of the stage The relief of chasquis takes place each two or three kilometers. The distance between the stages of the travellers is calculated in agreement with the day of way of the flames. For that reason there is an inn, or it lodges, each ómetros 15 or 20 kil. The central patio of the inn is surrounded by rooms for the passengers and surrounded stables or for the flames. Also there are abundantly assorted a public forage warehouse, food, clothes, arms and raw materials, like maize, flour of potato, wood, leather, etc. This warehouse, property of the Supreme Inca, stays supplied, according to very strict rules, with the taxes of the neighboring towns. Their rtantes reserves are so impo that they allow to send urgent aid to regions that have been victims of catastrophes, for example an earthquake. In the inns, everything is free for the traveller. In the first place because in the empire the currency does not exist. And, on, everything because nobody must right to move without an official reason. The farmers live and die in the place in which they have been born, to less qu and are recruited like transferred soldiers or to another region with all their tribe, as it happens sometimes. The case of Manco and the members of its caravan is not this one: his it is an official trip. When they arrive at the inn, they unload the flames and they take them to the stable. The men enter the room of the inn, a simple straw cover placed on constructed low walls with you marinate, mud bricks mixed with straw and dried to the sun. The e scasas windows is narrow and the smoke leaves with difficulty by the tile roof. There are no furniture, because they are prohibited, just like the decoration in the houses, with the aim, according to says, of not distracting the people of his work. The travelling s felt on doubled skins of flame in cushion form. The modest civil employee responsible for the inn humbly greets his noble guests and chicha offers small glasses to them of a species of called maize beer. What good knows after an exhausting day of trip! The delights of the gastronomy Any Inca would become crazy by a small glass from chicha. It is a drink of easy manufacture, but that surely you would not like: you chew grain of maize and throw in an earthenware vessel the paste thus obtained. This mixture f ermenta quickly thanks to the saliva, and gives a species of beer with much alcohol, call chicha. The Indians of the empire find it exquisite and they consume it in incredible amounts. While the men drink, the women of the inn cook. They load of firewood, and they ignite, a small cooked earth furnace. When the superior part is hot, they spill a thick paste. In order to prepare it, they made first maize flour, crushing the grains with a stone in form of average moon. Soon, they mixed it with water. Once cooked, the paste becomes heavy cakes. When they are toasted, but still soft on the inside, they above place to see hard cooked, sometimes a little meat of conejillo of Indians, and a good amount of sauce. A sauce that leaves very small our sharper mustard. Rather it is looked like tabasco. One is a mixture of red guindillas very sharp, crushed in a little water. In order to appease the fire of the mouth it is necessary to drink many you go itos of chicha! The companions at table feel in the ground and they use with the hand in magnificent cooked mud sources, since the towns Incas make a ceramics admirable, each one with the own style of its region. According to the custom, the one in charge of the inn has supper with his woman: they feel in the ground, supported back with back, and eat quickly and in silence, like everybody. Hungry by the long day's march, the travellers devour hot cakes, drink frothy chicha and finish off the food with taken berries of certain cactus, blue berries similar to the bilberries. Immediately, the alcohol puts of the good humor the companions at table. They begin you chew cocaine leaves that, to this altitude, aid to support better the fatigue. It is a powerful reconstituyente, but also one drugs: at the present time, from this shrub the cocaine removes. Soon, everyone becomes involved in a skin of flame and to duer to me calmly. Nobody fears the thieves. Hardly it has. In addition, what could rob? For that reason, most of the houses they do not have door. The bridge To the following morning, Paucar Libiac is first in awaking. Quickly it writes down in the cords of his quipo the events of the eve. To the dawn, everybody is ready. Here, near the equator, amanece to the same hour in all the stations of the year: the day always lasts twelve hours, just as the night. The conductors load the flames, the men greet the one in charge of the inn and the caravan initiates the second day of trip. They wait for still many days to them: in order to cross 1 500 kilometers, at the rate of 20 kilometers by dí to, are needed, at least, two months and means. The way runs between high mountains, but soon it is lowering. Towards the noon, the group descries a bridge and it stops. All escupen their coca leaf quid quickly and direct a plegaria to the local divinity, the huaca of pue nte. THE HUACAS The official religion of the Incas is the cult to the Sun, from that descends the imperial family. But many other important deities exist, specially the huacas. The huacas are places that the Incas create lived by espííritus. A small construction or a simple pile of stones is marked with; there are many things that can become huacas. Nobody would cross a river without drinking a drink of its water to thank to the local huaca. Tambi&eac ute;n can be huaca a rock of strange form, a boy who are born with six fingers, two binoculars, the tomb of a head, momia of an Inca or even that peculiar calcárea stone that forms sometimes in the stomach of the flames, and that is well-known with the name of bezoar. Before the caravan a formidable precipice is opened, to the bottom of which ruge a torrent. In order to cross this abyss it is necessary to use a suspension bridge. Four heavy ropes, capably pranced with fibers of toot cooked, that provide cords carries far damente resistant, unite both borders. The two ropes of down maintain tied tables strongly. Moored to their ends, vertical cords hold the ropes of above forming a light parapet. The set is solid, but the bridge descends much towards the torrent, before raising towards the other edge, and it is balanced with the wind of a frightful form. Nevertheless, there are them worse. Some bridges have only three ropes, placed in triangle, and is necessary to exactly put a foot in front of the other. Naturally, the flames cannot cross them. Other bridges consist of a single rope: enca rgado ties the traveller, by the back, to a wood piece in horseshoe form, and hung of that form it sends it to another one from a border. Other bridges, also of a single cord, it is necessary to pass them like a monkey: head down, taking hold with foot s and the hands. In this case, luckyly, the way has magnificent bridges, so wide that they can cross them two together flames. The civil employee in charge to keep and to conserve the bridge makes signs to the travellers so that they happen, and these advance without titubear by this little stable construction. Puna The trip passes without difficulty and, little by little, the landscape changes. For several days the way has been letting zigzag by the lateral zoomings of mountains. The Andean high plateau The caravan marches now by a totally straight way, through an immense plain covered with a gray grass and dry, splashed of rocks, you toot and cactus, that the travellers watch with curiosity because these plants do not grow in his monta&ntild e;as. Once in a while, a great tree extends its majestic branches. Manco resopla a little in its bunk. The air, now denser, prevents him to breathe well. The days and the inns follow one another, and the flames continue with worthy air. The curaca poor man is every time worse. He will have the "mal of puna"? It is not probable: this mysterious disease, that nowadays continues being inexplicable, is not pronounced until the 2 600 meters of height, and the group has still not arrived so low. Nevertheless, to the dusk, finished already the stage, Manco is not better. Complaint of strong backaches, thing that never has happened to him. It is necessary to call to the doctor. This one blows to smoke on the face and masculla to him a series of incomprehensible prayers. Later it gives him to drink a potion done by he himself with really medicinal grass, but also with spiders and clay. Soon, it begins to absorb the sore part, the back strongly. It is possible that Manco does not suffer more than a rheumatic crisis, due to the change of climate and to the humidity. But the doctor knows his office. He does not scrimp his efforts in spite of the shouts of the head. In the short while the effect of the potion notices: the patient begins to sweat and the pain calms. How many cocaine leaves have been needed to obtain this result? Paucar Libiac writes down, by means of the appropriate knots, that the curaca is contented with the doctor, who has compensated to him generously and who is better. In spite of the improvement, Manco has decided not to travel tomorrow, since an important ceremony will take place. Collective Weddings A high civil employee, tokoriococ, "el that all ve", he finishes arriving at the town to celebrate the marriages. All the Incas must marry, because they think that the true wealth of the country is the children, who will serve in their day the empire. In order to construct to ways and bridges, to excavate tunnels and irrigation channels and to make terraces of culture many specialized workers are needed. Also they make lack and guards messenger, not to speak of the powerful army of Cuzco, a part of which fights incessantly in some distant place, whereas another delay, ready to take part at any time. Therefore, except the mental patients and the doctors, nobody must right to remain unmarried. All have the obligation to marry to the twenty-five years. In the occasion of the event they receive a earth parcel that will allow them to feed its family. From that moment they become authentic citizens, they pay the taxes, they cultivate, when it touches to them, the fields of the patients or the old ones, and can be signal to assemble part of the army. The Incas usually you practice "matrimonio to prueba". If the fiancès do not congenian, another pair separates and looks for. But when arriving at the age limit, they must be decided and marry before the representative of the Inca. All the young people are placed then in two rows, the men in one, the women in another one, and each man chooses his wife. The women do not think, but as most of them she has happened through the experience of "matrimonio to prueba", everybody usually agrees. When he has made his election, the man wears solemnly, with a sandal, the right foot of "elegida of his corazón". The two families congratulate and interchange small gifts. Later they celebrate a great banquet, in which the girl runs in abundance. Naturally, the representative of the Inca is invited to all the houses, like honor guest. But as he cannot go simultaneously to all, usually he chooses the house of the most important person of the town. This year will go to house of the local curaca, whose daughter finishes marrying. Also Manco will attend the celebration. A banquet Inca The own guests contribute great part of plates, but the curaca flatters them with the best thing of its pantry: dry snails, cooked grass dehydrated, hardened to the sun and conserved strips of meat between leaves of mint, ingredients, all of them, to make soups terribly condimentadas. Also they will taste white, conejillos worms of roasted Indians or spanish stews, dry fish coming from the coast, and even, rare thing, meat of flame. The men feel to a side, the women to another one. The sources are in the ground, and all eat with the fingers, in beautiful escudillas of painted ceramics. It does not lack chicha. It circulates served in beautiful containers, bottles of double neck, that are united to form one single one. More complicated ceramics exist, of great decorative wealth, but these only usually are used, like funeral offerings, in the tombs. The envoy of the Inca and the curaca Manco, although are the honor guests, amuse themselves like the others. Suddenly, the noise increases, because a concert has begun. The orchestra is composed by quenas, flautas and several drums of flame skin, that produce a deaf rate. It is necessary to shout for being able to understand, and the guests are called to shouts: " Guá, guá!". Some begin a called dance puli-puli, that imitates the hunting of birds. Others prefer the seedtime dance, that imitates the fast steps whereupon the Earth is stepped on after to have seeded the grain. Paucar Manco realizes, suddenly, that has gone him the pain. On the following day it will be able to resume the trip. Cactus, cóndor... and "Trueno of the Sol" The group is with a great caravan that also goes to Cuzco. The immense landscapes of the $andes follow one another, always to more than 3 000 meters of height, while throughout the way scrubs and cactus grow, some with magnificent pink and yellow flowers. In the sky they plan cóndores, great birds of prey greater than the eagles, of plucked neck, that have become the symbol of the region. They fly incredibly high, letting itself take by the airflows. On the lookout, they scrutinize with his acute Vista each rock, each apex of land, in search of conejillo of Indians, of a young of flame or, simply, the carrion of a dead animal. Puna extends until losing itself of Vista, with its thick gray grass where the flocks of domesticated flames graze. In line straight the short way this immensity, between glacial cold at night and the torrid heat of the day. It is necessary to be very strong to support this climate. The diseases of the lungs are frequent. As they approach Cuzco, the ways are filled of people and the huacas are more and more pretty. For example, this gigantic massive gold statue, Intiilapa call, "Trueno of the Sol", that the caravan finishes leaving back. The travellers seem nervous because they know that already they are near the capital. Cuzco, the city of the sun The navel of mundo" The streets are cut in right angle. They are very narrow and something shady, but they are clean and they are laid out of houses of marinates in the periphery and of austere stone palaces in the center. Their long blind facades can tene r hundreds of meters. The streets are paved and some have sidewalks, thing that did not have the European cities of the time. It is certain that they are not very wide, but, as the cars do not exist, two pedestrians or two flames can cross themselves cámodamente. In downtown, that the Incas call "el navel of mundo", is an immense esplanade. There amounts of products of all class interchange pequenitlde;as: tanned ceramics, skins, pens of birds, basketwork, peppers, precious stones in gross, dry wool maize, snails, pacas of vicuna, rolls of cords, potato flour, conserves surrounded in mint leaves... To the bottom the imperial palace is raised, with stone walls enormous fit to the millimeter, without using mortar. The palace, like any house, is protected by a simple ceiling of strubbles of several colors, artísticament and pranced. Animacián of the city is extraordinary. All the curacas of the four provinces of the empire and its multiple circumscriptions have gone to celebrate the great celebration of the Sun, father of the Inca, who will take place within two days. Manco and its companions have lodged in an inn. The travellers coming from the north stay themselves in the North district of the city; those of the west, in the district the west, etc. In the empire everything is very well organized. After an abundant food, since later they will have to ayunar twenty-four hours, the men begin to work. They unpack the shipment of the flames. With the gathered frown, and with the help of his secretary, Manco he verifies if the gifts destined the Inca are in order. He counts the adornments of pens, meticulously sewn an a others; the tanned skins of puma with tinkle, the painted wood tumblers, the glasses of ceramics with form of heads, and what consti tuye the pride of the 10 000 families of the curaca: the magnificent carpets that represent, in different colors, streamlined demons and heroes. Manco is contented, the emperor will be satisfied: also it brings a good dog to him tidad of dust gold, within a container of silver. Towards the palace-temple On the following day, in the dawn, our travellers get dressed their suits celebration. Libiac puts a túnica pride, with embroiderings of red and blue pictures and small little figures, and legginses of precious pens. In a stock market, that ls hung levy of a side, are their inseparable quipos. One knows them of memory: part has gone at night reviewing them, in case the Inca or some of their four ministers does questions to him on the statistics of their district. Manco, moved, dresses the magnificent suit ceremony of the dignitaries of the north: a white túnica, a wool mantle of vicuna artistic embroidered and, mainly, a peculiar adornment that consist of a series of cords d and wool that hold to their backs two enormous unfolded wings of cóndor, blacks and white. Manco has a majestic aspect! The followed group of its loaded flames of gifts, goes towards the palace-temple. People of all the regions, of all the tribes of the empire, are by the side streets. The noise of the barefoot feet or the sandals, the blow are heard sec or of the hooves of the flames on paving stones, the hoarse roar of trompetas of conches that proclaim the arrival of some important personage, the voices of the multitude, the shouts of the children. Arrived from the four corners of the empire Just arrived they advance, accompanied of its flames and servants who take the standards of their tribe. Some go in bunk, like the Manco vain person; others, on foot. Those of the east, that live in the forests, show with pride naked and muscular his to rso, adorned of red paintings. Robust chancas, famous by his valentía, walks with military step. They take the head covered with a skin with puma, and seems that the eyeteeth of the animal are going to bite the forehead to them. Diferent is towns distinguish by the suit and the hairdo. They take the forehead surrounded by tapes; others take shelter the hair in moño and take a wood crown on the squashed skull. Some take to hairdos of pens multicolors. Yunca s of the coast calls the attention by the horrible painted wood masks that cover their head completely. They jump and they are contorsionan to are of flautas and the drums. The multitude greets to the delegations con.estusiasmo. One kneels down with devotion whenever it passes momia of a late emperor, who goes sitting in a splendid bunk and takes the hidden face under a gold mask. Manco is applauded just as the others: the great wings of cóndor cause the admiration of all. With the glad heart, it happens under the gigantic stone door with trapeze form, whose threshold constitutes a single rock of 25 tons. In the seat, the participants are placed next to others. All keep silence. They appear the priests of the Sun Begins uninformed and the plegaria who will last all the night. In the presence of the Supreme Inca Finally, shortly before the dawn, he appears emperor, the Sapa Inca, the Supreme Inca. It goes accompanied of his main wife, the Coya, venerated just as his husband. All the assistants take off and, in silence, they watch the horizon, towards and l this. The aurora gilds little by little the sky. Suddenly, the first ray of the rising sun shows after the highest top of the near ones You walk. Then the Inca takes a great glass of chicha sagrada in each hand and, with solemn gesture, the Sun invites to drinks r to its father. Like a single man, all the participants squat themselves, with the arms extended forwards in plea gesture. Later, the Inca spills one of the glasses, the one of his "padre", in a channel specially excavated in the ground, and he invites to drink his companions. He also will drink with all the assistants to the ceremony, but not har&aacu you; more than to get wet the lips, because he does not want to emborrachar itself. All drink with respect and offer their gifts, that quipucamayoc real are writing down in their cords. Next the offerings to the Sun are made, father of all the things. This antilde;o will not be necessary to make a sacrifice human, since the harvest has been good. Therefore, black flames are immolated, only animale s that are absolutely pure and that have the same color in all the body - the white flames, for example, have the black nose -. Their meat, roasted, it is shared religiously by all. The Inca raises his glass again. Chicha runs in abundance, and everyone offers that has honest offering to him him. Thus very ceremoniously, they are consumed, one after another one, thousands of glasses of chicha. Manco very is impressed because the Inca has paid attention to him. It is certain that he has not directed the word to him, because never speaks directly to its subjects, but, after phrases pronounced by one of his ministers, he himself has offered to him to drink. That is a great honor! Evidently, the emperor is satisfied with his gifts. And the curaca, when it returns to his town, will not let sing its praises and will be faithful to the powerful sovereign of the empire. The aim of an empire In 1532, the Spaniards of Francisco Pizarro arrive at Peru after several expeditions of recognition. They are 182 men, with tens of horses and some tubes, and totally surprise the Incas, immersed in the heat of civil war. Its success is sudden, mainly after allying itself with one of sides in fight. Atahualpa, the titular Inca, is taken and strangled. Pizarro prevails. But not for a long time. Huascar, stepbrother of the sovereign, only pretendiente to the title, is a very intelligent man. Betrayed by some of its men, Pizarro in a moment sees rise against him a swarm of riders Incas, directed by its Inca in person, armed to the Spanish. A gun battery - his - handled by soldiers Incas it annihilates his troops. The Spanish is going to see itself surrounded in Cuzco. The conquerors will need near four years to end the Incas definitively. In addition the victory will be obtained by treason. The sovereign, Tupac Amaru, will be beheaded. His successor, Sayui Tupac, will finish his days overwhelmed with honors in the small kingdom that the Spaniards left him. Since then, the powerful territory Inca will not be more than a province of the immense Spanish empire, an empire "en the one that never put sol".



TEMPLARIA? In I capitulate "HISTORY" I have dedicated myself to expose the different hypotheses that from the point of view of "academic science", are close shuffled to del origin and purpose of Eunate. Also I have mentioned the arguments with which they reject the hypotheses that affirm their templario origin: lack of the historical or documentary news; and its conclusion: it is based exclusively on the similarity of his octogonal plant with the one of Santo Sepulcro of Jerusalem. Then, in this chapter I am going to deepen in this hypothesis, that as you are going to be able to verify it has more foundation of the one than it is deduced of the excessive simplification that we finished reading. In the first place we are going to analyze this "lack of the historical or documentary news". This it is a fact certain, but nonexcluding. It even can be considered like a favorable argument to this hypothesis, since the documentation absence in which it is mentioned to Eunate - the first document is of 1520, almost 400 years after its construction - it is not logical and it can be related to the happened thing after the prohibition of the Order in 1312, as a result of its confrontation with Felipe IV "beautiful" the king of France, as well Felipe I king of Navarre by its marriage with Juana I, queen of Navarre. Indeed, after the dissolution of the Order of Temple their possessions were distributed between different you order and institutions (in the case of Eunate, the Brotherhood of the Virgin of Eunate possibly); and it is a verified fact that between these new proprietors it was practical common the destruction of all that documentation and symbols that related these possessions to the templarios. This way they tried to avoid possible claims in case of a hypothetical resurgence of the Order. Also it is certain that it lacks the typical simbología with which the templarios adorned their constructions, such as its currency, its shield, its esoteric cross "Tau" or its official cross "Paté", but that first document of 1520, that I have mentioned previously, leaves the possibility that open these symbols existed: "... and it has diverse crossings in field colored in the walls of the this church of the part of inside...". Now we will analyze the conclusion: "it is based exclusively on the similarity of his octogonal plant with the one of Santo Sepulcro of Jerusalem". This, instead of confirming its reasoning, demonstrates the ignorance that of the templario world those have that has formulated it. Of course, the octogonal plant of Eunate is one of the arguments that can make suppose their templario origin us, but not the only one. In addition is a proven fact that in "Christian" Europe, most of the constructions with octogonal plant they were almost exclusive of the templaria culture. But they are mistaken when relating them to the roundhouse of Santo Sepulcro of Jerusalem, because it is not the this origin of the templarias churches of octogonal plant, but the church of the Cupola of the Rock, also in Jerusalem and of Muslim origin. Constructed between years 687- 691, by order of the Abb-el-Malik caliph, it was donated in 1118 by Balduino, king of Jerusalem, at your service of the Poor Companions of Christ, who from then were known as Horsemen the Temple - Weather, in the frank language - or templarios. Therefore, the temple of the Cupola of the Rock becomes the mother and dean of the rest of the churches of the templarios, after being consecrated in 1142 under the title of "Temple of the Gentleman". But since I have said before, this it is not the only argument to affirm the templario origin of Eunate. Thus, the abundant recorded marks of stonecutter in their visible stones and by all the church, contribute more data. Between these marks is "ábacus", spiral a handle cane used so much by the "Magister" of the Construction Companions, like by the Great Master of Temple. More significant is one second cruciform mark that only appears in other buildings whose templaria paternity is beyond all doubt: Castillo-Convento of Temple in Taking (Portugal), the Church of Temple in London and the Roundhouse of Santo Sepulcro in Are above; all of them polygonal buildings. But still one third mark exists that increases the possible entailment of Eunate with the templarios. One is a mark that in medievo it symbolized to the tower of the game of the chess. This mark is only repeated in the chapel of already mentioned Convent To take, in the Churches of Temple de Laon and Metz, in France, and in Santo templario Sepulcro of Is above again. Templaria church of Metz templaria Church of Laon The figures carved in the capitals also approach us this hypothesis, but before it is necessary that it comments something to you to near one of the most famous mysteries of the Templarios: the "Bafomet". It is not clear that one hides behind this word, but the legend says to us that cabrío has "... a male figure, seated in a throne and with a torch ignited between the horns; in the forehead the sign of the Pentagrama, that is the star of five points; with the hand it signals of the occultism... ". These same legend says to us that the Templarios adored to this ídolo as if it was a God. Then, everything seems to indicate that the "carved masks" in some of the capitals of Eunate are true "bafomets" templarios. Easiest to identify they are in the outer arcade, the capitals first and sixth (to see the chapter "the Arcade"); their faces are demonic, with ears as a horns on the skull, penetrating glance, cheeks swollen in attitude to blow and rictus terrorífico. More difficult to locate they are those that are in the capitals located to both sides of the main cover; I am talking about the capitals in which a human head of enormous been on, escrutadores and very expressive awares has been carved, and of that divide enormous beards that are coiled to both sides with spiral form. If we watched a little tipped and of the misfortune, we are surprised very with the image that appears to us: a male cabrío with a frightful expression, is to say to another one "bafomet". Still we will be able to contemplate two more "bafomets", this time in the outer archivolt that as a guardalluvia protects the cover: one of them in the key (very deteriorated and of impossible identification) and other, on the feet of one of the figures of the left side. Everything seems to indicate that this figure, closing its layer with both hands, represents a templario. Templaria economy As already we commented in the subject of the charges the templaria organization supposed the increase of the mercantile interchanges conditional by a greater security than it provided the proximity and amount of establishments of the order. In that time the money was solely of metal, which even could be a disadvantage before the risk of robberies and before the weight that had to support those that had to outside transport great amounts of money between distant places or due to mercantile interchanges or peregrinations. Before this situation the weather put in already practices a system used by venecianos and lombardos as it were the change letter. A user of the payment system went to a charge and gave a number in metalist, who was reflected in a document with distinguishing signs that only the competent templarios knew. This letter later was made effective in another charge. All this process supposed an additional payment in form of small commission, as you can observe everything is invented. In case outside little and added to the benefits of operation of the properties and donations, they obtained money of: Tithes of Churches. Tolls. Markets and fairs. Rents of houses: One said that in Paris they had great amount of rented buildings. Rents of lands and taxes in its territories. Services of accounting and warehouse: They kept money and objects from value of noble and kings and even administered even to the taxes of provinces and kingdoms (including the Pope). Moneylenders: They lent money not only to kings and bishops but to any citizen able to restitute it, with a small interest of course. Not if you have heard speak of which the templarios were great bankers, as you see seems to be that really they were it. In the beginnings they already lent encubiertamente (not to be accused of usury) money to peregrinate to current citizens like a a certain Pedro and its woman one such Isabel, inhabitants of the city of Zaragoza. In return they operated the property in his absence and if they returned had to recover the rendered thing, in concrete 50 morabetinos. Marine commerce through its Mediterranean fleet. Probáblemente mining operations. And of course farms with its vineyards, orchards, mills, barns, furnaces of bread... These benefits contributed to support the expensive Eastern war in form of purchase of horses, arms, and raw materials (v.g wood) quite little overseas to construct this armament. But it not only had this destiny, the greatness of the weather is that all this great amount of money that could retain not accumulated sinó that invested in culture, agriculture, commerce and industry (crafts) and construction to it, is to say in PROGRESS, civilization and improvement of the quality of life (we remember that we are in the Average Age) and thus noncollapse the economy. For that reason perhaps when the misero Felipe IV wanted to take control of the treasure I take a handspan of noses, that if it recovered the documents that testified to him as a weak person and sold real estate of their innocent victims. They tried to buy territories of culture, to store the excesses thinking about times of shortage (today the templarios grain dealers of the county of Essex in England can be visited to become an idea of the high production of their earth), tried to promote the commerce, the crafts and construction avoiding that paid to tolls and rates. They persecuted the freedom of his subjects (often they obtained a city in donation, we remember that almost everything is donated to them less a kingdom neither but nor than the one of Aragón, slight enthusiasm generated the order in those times or that frightful sins the donating king had committed) giving earth them for his own benefit. And we do not speak of the religious constructions that they sponsored and they financed. That deserves I aside capitulate to return to continue Key Introduction Personalities I conciliate of Troyes moral Justification ideological Assumptions Introduction Political Situation Culture and Science Feudalism and Caballeria the Ecclesiastical Reformation Year 1000 Empire versus Papado templario Organizational chart templarios Outer Organization Atuendos Encomiendas templarias Routes Economia of the order Capable Provinces Diplomaticos Templario Army the sufismo the concept of sarracenos Yihad the Ribat the hashish smokers the Jewish Origins of the Islam Dualismo and gnosis Philosophy cátara World celta main Positions key Personalities Performances disolutorias Concilio de Vienne the suplicio of Molay the Curse the Ritual templario treasure of Initiation the Baphomet the Black Virgins the places of Being able the templaria fleet medieval Architecture secret Alphabet evangelista San Juan Alchemy Origins | Unfaithful historical Context | Organization | | the End | Mystery and ritual | The WEST Portugal Aragón and Catalonia Castile and Leon and Majorca France and Aubernia England, Scotland and Ireland Germany and Hungary Austria and Bohemia Italy Pouille(Apulia) and Sicily ORIENTS Jerusalem Tripoli Antioch Cyprus Edesa Diplomats the close relationship of Godofredo de Foucher with Luis VII who demands the shipment to him from troops to Palestine, of step that tries to mediate between king of England Enrique II and the bishop Becket Takings. Ricardo de Hastings, Master of the weather in England, its brother of rank Osto de Saint-omer (brother of Godofredo de Saint-omer, companion of Hugo de Payns), and a third brother Robert of Pirou, exerted of political agents of Enrique II. Next to Godofredo de Foucher they convince to the archbishop Becket Takings so that one reconciles with the king. By the way Becket died assassinated in the cathedral of Canterbury. to return to continue Templario army Is at the time of king Fulco de Anjou when the templarios begin to accompany to the secular armies in their military campaigns. But its first contact with the enemy was a failure. The templarios were attracted by a small group of sarracenos, to which they persecuted to finish put completely in an ambush that annihilated them. Aids There was cook, blacksmith... Cavalry Counted on Armenian or mainly Syria auxiliary army of support formed by call turcoples (arqueros to horse). They had training fields where they learned to fight together, to an order of the Master they were sent in the indicated direction or they gave the return. This that today it is normal in all the armies of the world in the Average Age was a novel concept since the European armies used to fight like celtas, without practically strategy, front and by coj... Had brother gonfalonero (carrying of standard) that carried a standard battle bauseant, bausan or bausean, that in fact was a French shout military that it meant something as well as brave, were 2 squares: one black and another target. It served as point of contact of the templarios in battle. As we said they did not have a light auxiliary cavalry since the heavy one could not compete in speed, was not able for example to capture enemy in frank retirement, could either act like explorers, nor like protection against the Turkish arqueros that sent their deadly arrows and next they retired. In the camping They mounted the first chapel and next to her the store of the Master. Each horseman along with their group mounts their stores in circle around the chapel, so that this is in the center of the camping. Later the escuderos provided with firewood and forage. At the time of the food the commander of the food warned of the distribution after the pertinent permission of the Master. The distribution tries to be equitable and humanitarian, mainly with the patients as it indicates the rule to return to continue Sufismo and Temple That the voice of the sufí town listens to and does not say amen, will stay indicated as a fool before God. Mahoma My religion is the Love. Times call shepherd to me of gacelas, other Christian monk, or Persian wise person. Loved my it is Trina and at the same time One. Many are the things that seem 3, but are unique. It does not have name, not to have limits to that all limitation is uncertain. Ibn el-Arabi The humanity is slept, occupied only in which is useless, living in a mistaken world. To think that this can be surpassed, it is only custom and use, nonreligion. This religion is inept... Not parlotees before the People of the Footpath, before consúmete to same you. Your wisdom and your religion are inverted if you are head in relation to the reality down. The man is weaving a network in winch of if same. A lion makes pieces its cage. They say of the sufíes that are a Muslim sect (and fundamentlmente they are it), other that the sufíes are the finders of the Wisdom, of the Truth, of the Knowledge and for it they use all the means of which they create to be able to be worth without it to discriminate no by religion questions (it says that the templarios recited orations of Muslim tradition and we remember the sincretismo that many authors among them Atienza do not doubt in aiming at Temple). In fact some point like sufies at the Christians Ramon Llull and Roger Bacon. The sufismo does not suppose retirement nor isolation, unlike other iniciáticas doctrines. For the sufismo it is not necessary to resign to the world to reach the Maxima espiritualidad. In fact when the religious illumination is reached, single it has value if that reingresa person to the routine character and lives according to that illumination. The average one to arrive at that to wake up spiritual is the LOVE. This sufí concept impregnated all medieval Literature and to the trovadores (those that but popularized the sufismo were their magnificent poets) and in general the sufismo I influence of clear form in European Literature. The sufismo respects all the beliefs and its objective is "to free itself of intellectual ambitions, greeds, boastfulnesses, blind obediences to uses and customs or fear to people of greater rank to return to continue The mysterious templaria fleet the templarios had a provincial house in the Atlantic coast of France, in the Rochelle from where they controlled the charges and properties of the zone. There also the only port of the French Atlantic coast under control of the order existed. It is well certain that the order had an important fleet in the Mediterranean that it knew as clearly objective the territories of east, but the Rochelle, what painted in the épica fight against the unfaithful one. According to L Charpentier, NOTHING. In fact its function is not known, nor to where to the ships went that left from port. According to the historian Juan of the Varende that mentions Charpentier, the mission of the fleet was to bring silver of America, in fact at the beginning of the Average Age the silver was a little good all the opposite who when finalizing that period. In fact by that time one became celebrates the phrase "to have silver" like synonymous of being reliable. The indications which they can take to think about the veracity of this history are that: If he is certain that normandos, bretones and other European towns arrived well at America could transmit their knowledge in the matter at your service, and this had the sufficient money, men, wisdom and Co.... cracks like carrying out it. They could accede once again to certain documents (we remember the maps of Pirris Kings) enlightening. The Spanish and Portuguese conquerors had you order of caballeria where the templarios would be integrated once dissolved the weather, p.e Spain the one of calatrava and Portugal the one of the horsemen of Christ. Both it seems to be were visited and consulted by Columbus. Certain escultóricas figures of the time of the order and before the official conquest of the New World seem to show native Americans. The legend affirms that the Indians already knew the white man, the cross and the virgin.